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Tiffany Favrile Glassware

Iridescent Art Glass Dating Back to the 1890s

TiffanyFavrile.jpg
Tiffany Favrile Decanter (signed L.C. Tiffany Favrile) with Five Cordial stems. - Photo Courtest of Morphy Auctions

When it comes to art glass made purely for decorative purposes, Favrile pieces crafted by Louis Comfort Tiffany’s studios are among the best. This is also among the most highly sought after and expensive  glass in the antiques marketplace.

In 1894, Tiffany registered the name Favrile and began production in earnest a couple of years later. Some sources say this fancy term is derived from the Old English word for hand wrought: febrile.

Others mention faber as a source, the Latin word translating to “craftsman.” Regardless of the inspiration for this moniker coined by Tiffany, even before it was registered a number of Favrile objects were introduced at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.

But what does Favrile really mean? Simply put, it references the handcrafted art glass (and some pottery as well) produced by Tiffany, much of which was iridescent in appearance. It can be relatively monotone in color or finished with a mottled “oil slick” finish. The iridescent look was achieved by spraying metallic salts on hot glass, and they were absorbed to form a lustrous finish.

Going beyond that, the name Favrile is the embodiment of the handcrafted ideal held by the Arts & Crafts movement coupled with nature-based Art Nouveau influences often shown in the free form shapes of the glass. For example, while he didn’t invent the style, Tiffany is said to have named the Jack in the Pulpit vase after a flower found growing on his estate on Long Island in New York.

Tiffany Studios made many Favrile examples of these vases in varied colors during the early 1900s.

The popularity of this glass led to thousands of pieces being made through 1933. Many collectors with deep pockets compete for these pieces when they come on the market today. They can also be viewed in museums around the world including examples held in the vast Tiffany collection of the Charles Hosmer Morse Museum of American Art in Winter Park, Florida.

Glass Competing with Favrile

It’s interesting to note that upon seeing Steuben’s version if iridescent glass, Aurene, that Tiffany thought his beloved Favrile was being copied. He was so incensed, he filed a lawsuit against Frederick Carder’s company. As it turned out, Steuben's lines were completely innovative. Tiffany found that the method employed to manufacture the new iridescent glass was very different than that used to make Favrile and the suit never fully materialized.  

However, after leaving Tiffany & Co., Martin Bach, Sr. did use the formulas learned while working with the firm to manufacture glass, according to The Collector’s Encyclopedia of American Art Glass by John A. Shuman, III.  Quezal Art Glass and Decorating Company made iridescent glass in vivid colors such as blue, gold, purple, and green. While the formula for the finish was reportedly the same, Quezal did incorporate some unique patterns and shapes in their lines.

Loetz Witwe also produced iridescent glass said to be inspired by Tiffany’s Favrile beginning in the 1890s. In fact, this Austrian factory’s most significant pieces were made during this period, and they contributed greatly to the company’s success at that time.

The patented iridescent Phänomen glass (a type unique to Loetz decorated with rippled or feathered patterns) designed by Franz Hofstätter won a grand prize at the Paris World’s Exposition in 1900 alongside Tiffany.

“Tiffany achieved an outstanding expression in glassware of the Art Nouveau style. Much of his work was in a heavily lustred glass that was considerably admired abroad, especially in central Europe where it created a new fashion,” according to a feature on Britanica.com.

But in all honesty, historians haven't really determined which company or craftsman was first inspired to create iridescent decorative glass (especially when it comes to the rivalry between Tiffany and Steuben), according to Antiques Roadshow art glass expert Arlie Sulka in an online article. There’s no question, however, they were all in competition during the late 1800s moving into the 20th century making a very popular type of ware.

Distinguishing Authentic Favrile Glass

Mentioning Tiffany’s competitors is important, especially when looking to identify and authenticate genuine Favrile pieces. Yes, there have been times that individuals have taken unmarked antique iridescent glass made by other companies and inscribed a Tiffany signature on the bottom of the piece.

Of course, the more you study the variations from manufacturer to manufacturer, the better you get at distinguishing authentic Tiffany wares. The colors in the iridescent finish tend to vary and Favrile pieces are often more muted in coloring, with gold being a prime example. Shapes can also be similar, but there are many subtle variations from manufacturer to manufacturer of antique iridescent glass. Consider studying Tiffany Favrile Art Glass (Schiffer Books), or another title offering many Tiffany examples to learn what to look for in authentic pieces in terms of styles and colors.

There are also many different styles of signatures on Favrile pieces, but the way they are marked often tells the tale of authenticity. “Signatures 9 times out of 10 are etched on the underside base counter clockwise. If you turn a piece over and look at the base, you will see the signature under the center pontil going from left to right. There are exceptions to every rule, but this is what you will find on the majority of pieces made,” according to art glass expert Reyne Haynes Hirsch in an article for Heritage Auctions.

Because this glassware commands so much money, usually sums into the thousands, you have to take extreme care when purchasing it. Study, consult experts in the field when in doubt, and buy from dealers with experience in high end art glass whenever possible.

Stay up to date on the latest antiques news and learn more about identifying, valuing, and collecting antiques. Sign up for our FREE About Antiques Newsletter today!



Tiffany & Co.

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Tiffany & Company
Formerly called
Tiffany, Young and Ellis (1837-1853)
Type
Public
Traded as NYSE: TIF
S&P 500 Component
Industry Retail
Founded September 18, 1837; 180 years ago (1837-09-18)
Founder
  • Charles Lewis Tiffany
  • John B. Young
Headquarters 727 Fifth Avenue
New York City, New York, U.S. 10022
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
  • Michael J. Kowalski, Chairman & CEO[1]
Total assets US$3.79 billion (2013)[2]
Total equity US$2.32 billion (2013)[2]
Number of employees
10,600 (2014)[3]
Website tiffany.com

Tiffany & Company (known colloquially as Tiffany or Tiffany's) is an American luxury jewelry and specialty retailer, headquartered in New York City.[4]

Tiffany sells jewelry, sterling silver, china, crystal, stationery, fragrances, water bottles, watches, personal accessories, as well as some leather goods.[5] Many of these goods are sold at Tiffany stores, as well as through direct-mail and corporate merchandising. Tiffany is renowned for its luxury goods and is particularly known for its diamond and sterling silver jewelry. Tiffany markets itself as an arbiter of taste and style,[6] and was once a purveyor to the Russian imperial family.[citation needed]

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Establishment
    • 1.2 "Blue Book" and the Civil War
    • 1.3 "Gilded Age"
    • 1.4 1900–1999
    • 1.5 2000–present
      • 1.5.1 United States V. Lederhaas-Okun, Ingrid
  • 2 Stores
  • 3 Manufacturing
  • 4 Advertising
  • 5 Products
    • 5.1 Diamonds
    • 5.2 Colored gemstones
    • 5.3 Fragrances
  • 6 Sports awards
  • 7 Current designers and collections
  • 8 In popular culture
  • 9 Gallery
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

History[edit]

Establishment[edit]

Tiffany & Company, Union Square, storage area with porcelain (about 1887)
"Tiffany Cross" version of the Medal of Honor

Founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and John B. Young[7] in Brooklyn, Connecticut in 1837 as a "stationery and fancy goods emporium", the store initially sold a wide variety of stationery items, and operated as "Tiffany, Young and Ellis" in Lower Manhattan. The name was shortened to Tiffany & Company in 1853 when Charles Tiffany took control and established the firm's emphasis on jewelry.[8] Tiffany & Company has since opened stores in major cities all over the world. Unlike other stores at the time in the 1830s, Tiffany clearly marked the prices on its goods to forestall any haggling over prices. In addition, against the social norm at the time, Tiffany only accepted cash payments, and did not accept payments on credit.[9] Such practices, fixed prices for ready money, were first introduced by Palmer's of London Bridge in 1750, who employed the young Robert Owen, the later social reformer.[10]

"Blue Book" and the Civil War[edit]

The first Tiffany's mail order catalog, known as the "Blue Book," was published in 1845 in the United States (U.S.);[11] and publishing of the catalog continues in the 21st century. In 1862, Tiffany & Company supplied the Union Army with swords (Model 1840 Cavalry Saber), flags and surgical implements. In 1867, Tiffany & Co. was the first US firm to win an award for the excellence in silverware at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. In 1868, Tiffany was incorporated.[6]

"Gilded Age"[edit]

In 1870, the company built a new store building at 15 Union Square West, Manhattan, designed by John Kellum and costing $500,000. It was described by The New York Times as a "palace of jewels".[12] Tiffany stayed at this site until 1906.[12]

In 1877, an insignia that would become the famous New York Yankees "NY" logo was struck on a police medal of honor by Tiffany & Company; the Yankees adopted the logo in 1909. In 1878, Tiffany won the gold medal for jewelry and a grand prize for silverware at the Paris Exposition, which gave the Tiffany brand name added prestige. In 1887, Tiffany bought the French Crown Jewels, which attracted publicity and further solidified the Tiffany brand's association with high-quality diamonds.[13] The company revised the Great Seal of the United States in 1885. In 1902, after the death of Charles Lewis Tiffany, his son, Louis Comfort Tiffany, became the company's first official Design Director.[11]

1900–1999[edit]

In 1919, the company made a revision to the Medal of Honor on behalf of the United States Department of the Navy.[14] This "Tiffany Cross" version was rare because it was awarded only for combat, using the previous design for non-combat awards.[15] In 1942 the Navy established the Tiffany version for non-combat heroism, but in August 1942 the Navy eliminated the Tiffany Cross and the two-medal system.[16] In 1956, legendary designer Jean Schlumberger joined Tiffany, and Andy Warhol collaborated with Tiffany to create Tiffany Holiday Cards (circa 1956-1962).[11][17]

In 1968 Lady Bird Johnson, First Lady of the U.S. at the time, commissioned Tiffany to design a White House china-service that featured 90 flowers.[18][19] In November 1978, Tiffany & Co. was sold to Avon Products Inc. for about US$104 million in stock. However, in a 1984 Newsweek article, the Fifth Avenue Tiffany store was likened to the Macy's department store during a white sale due to the high number of inexpensive items on sale;[9] furthermore, customers complained about declining quality and service. In August 1984, Avon sold Tiffany to an investor group led by William R. Chaney for US$135.5 million in cash. Tiffany went public again in 1987 and raised about US$103.5 million from the sale of 4.5 million shares of common stock.[9]

Due to the 1990–1991 recession in the United States, Tiffany commenced an emphasis upon mass merchandising. A new campaign was launched that stressed how Tiffany could be affordable for all; for example, the company advertised that the price of diamond engagement rings started at US$850. “How to Buy a Diamond” brochures were sent to 40,000 people who called a toll-free number specifically set up to target the broader population.[9] However, to maintain its image as a luxury goods company, high-style images remained on display in Tiffany stores.[9]

2000–present[edit]

Tiffany & Co. iconic blue gift boxes

In 2000, The Tiffany & Company Foundation was established to provide grants to nonprofit organizations working in the areas of the environment and the arts.[20] In June 2004, Tiffany sued EBay, claiming that the latter was making profits from the sale of counterfeit Tiffany products;[21] however, Tiffany lost both at trial and on appeal.[22]

On 2009, a collaboration between the Japanese mobile-phone operator SoftBank and Tiffany & Co. was announced. The two companies designed a cellphone, limited to ten copies, and containing more than 400 diamonds, totaling more than 20 carats (4.0 g). Each cellphone cost more than 100,000,000 yen (£781,824).[23]

United States V. Lederhaas-Okun, Ingrid[edit]

A media report in early July 2013 revealed that former Tiffany & Company vice president Ingrid Lederhaas-Okun had been arrested and charged with stealing more than $US1.3 million of diamond bracelets, drop earrings, and other jewellery. According to prosecutors from Manhattan, U.S., the official charges filed against Ms. Lederhaas-Okun accused her of "wire fraud and interstate transportation of stolen property."[24]

In February 2017, the company announced that CEO Frédéric Cuménal was out of a job immediately after 22 months, blaming weak sales results. He was replaced on an interim basis by the New York jeweler's longtime former CEO and current chairman Michael Kowalski.[25]

Stores[edit]

Tiffany & Company's flagship store exterior
Tiffany & Company's flagship store interior

Since 1940, Tiffany's flagship store has operated at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street in Manhattan, New York City, U.S. The polished granite exterior is well known for its window displays, and the store has been the location for a number of films, including Breakfast at Tiffany's, starring Audrey Hepburn, and Sweet Home Alabama, starring Reese Witherspoon. The former Tiffany and Company Building on 37th Street is on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.[26]

When it opened in 1990, the Tiffany & Co. store at Fairfax Square in Tysons Corner, Virginia, U.S. became the largest outside of New York City, with 14,500 sq ft (1,350 m2) of retail space.[27]

In the United Kingdom (UK), Tiffany stores are located in Terminal 5, at London's Heathrow airport (opened at the end of March 2008), in the Westfield London shopping centre in Shepherd's Bush, in Old Bond Street, opposite the entrance to Burlington Gardens, and in Manchester, Selfridges Exchange Square. A flagship Irish store was opened in Brown Thomas on Dublin's Grafton Street in October 2008 and is the largest of the company's European outlets. Also in October 2008, Tiffany's opened a store in Madrid, Spain, and brought the Tiffany Yellow Diamond (pictured at right) to the opening.[citation needed]

In Australia, Tiffany & Company's flagship store is located on Collins Street in Melbourne. Other stores include Chadstone Shopping Centre (Melbourne); Sydney (Castlereagh Street, Westfield Bondi Junction and DFS Galleria on George Street); Brisbane (Queens Plaza); and Perth (King Street).[citation needed]

On March 8, 2001, Tiffany's launched its first Latin American store in São Paulo, Brazil, located in the Iguatemi São Paulo shopping center.[28] The company opened a second store in the city on October 20, 2003,[29] near the famous Oscar Freire Street. The last store opened was Curitiba in September 2013, now Tiffany has stores in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasília e Curitiba.

In 2004, Tiffany & Company created "Iridesse", a chain of stores dedicated to pearl-only jewelry. The company operated 16 stores in Florida, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, California, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Virginia. However, the chain operated at a loss since its founding and the company announced in early 2009 that, despite its continued belief in the concept, it would discontinue Iridesse due to the economic climate of the time.[30]

Tiffany & Co. reported in 2006 that its location at South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa, California, U.S. was its most profitable location, followed by the New York City flagship store, the Boston, Massachusetts outlet in Copley Place, and the Ala Moana Shopping Center in Honolulu, Hawaii.[citation needed]

Tiffany & Co. announced its second store opening at Pavilion Kuala Lumpur in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in September 2007 to coincide with the shopping mall's opening. The store consists of 1,700 sq ft (160 m2) retail space and features the same decor elements as the New York City flagship store. Later that year, other stores were opened in the U.S., such as the Natick Collection in Natick, Massachusetts, U.S., which opened in September 2007, and Mohegan Sun Erika's casino in Connecticut, U.S, and the Providence Place mall in Providence, Rhode Island, U.S., both of which opened in November 2007.[citation needed]

As of January 31, 2007, the company operated 64 Tiffany & Company. stores in the U.S., with a total physical area of approximately 486,000 gross square feet, as well as 103 international stores that measure approximately 306,000 gross square feet in total.

The company's expansion continued in 2011 with the opening of a store at the Multiplaza complex in Escazú, Costa Rica[citation needed] and a Richmond, Virginia, U.S. location in Stony Point Fashion Park on September 9, 2011.[citation needed]

In November 2012, the company operated in 22 countries and its worldwide net sales reached US$3.6 billion in 2011. Over 50% of the company's 2011 sales occurred in the U.S.[31]

As of January 31, 2014, the company operated 121 stores in the Americas, 72 in Asia-Pacific, 54 in Japan, 37 in Europe and 5 in "emerging markets". The 298[32] stores have 1,165,700 gross retail square footage. The company's flagship store in New York had 45,500 gross retail square footage and accounted for 8% of the company's net sales in the latest fiscal year ended January 31, 2014.[3]

The company plans to continue expanding in 2014 with the opening of a flagship store at the Centro Andino complex in Bogota, Colombia

Manufacturing[edit]

The company's manufacturing facilities produce approximately 60% of the merchandise sold[citation needed]—the balance, including rose-gold and almost all non-jewelry items, coming from third parties overseas. Tiffany's oversees a significant U.S. manufacturing base, with jewelry and silver goods produced in Mount Vernon, New York; majority in Cumberland, Rhode Island; and Lexington, Kentucky, while silver hollow-ware is produced in Rhode Island. The company's other subsidiaries, located in facilities outside the U.S., process, cut and polish the diamonds.

The company may increase the percentage of internally manufactured jewelry in the future, but it is not expected[by whom?] that Tiffany will ever manufacture all of its needs. Some of the key factors which management considered[when?] prior to its decision to outsource manufacturing included: product quality; gross margin; access to or mastery of various jewelry-making skills and technology; support for alternative capacity; and the cost of capital investments.[33]

Advertising[edit]

After the initial publication of the "Blue Book" Tiffany catalog in 1845, Tiffany continued to use its catalog as part of its advertisement strategy. The Tiffany catalog, one of the first catalogs printed in full color, remained free until 1972. Tiffany's mail-order catalogs reached 15 million people in 1994. Tiffany also produces a corporate-gift catalog each year, and corporate customers purchase Tiffany products for business gift-giving, employee-service and achievement-recognition awards, and for customer incentives. Tiffany still produces a catalog for subscribers, but its advertisement strategy no longer focuses primarily on its catalog.[6]

In addition to the mail-order catalog, Tiffany displays its advertisements in many locations, including at bus stops, in magazines and newspapers, and online. Tiffany routinely places ads in Vanity Fair, The New York Times Magazine, Architectural Digest, Money, Conde Nast Traveler, Black Enterprise, and Texas Monthly.[citation needed] With the advent of new technologies, Tiffany places banner advertisements in the New York Times' mobile app for the iPhone, whereby the user can download the Tiffany app free of charge.[34][35] In January 2015 they launched their first ever same-sex couple campaign.

Products[edit]

Diamonds[edit]

The Tiffany Yellow Diamond, a 128-carat stone cut in a modified cushion-shape featuring 90 facets instead of the 57 or 58 of a standard brilliant cut. The stone, discovered in 1878, has never been sold.

George Frederick Kunz, a Tiffany’s gemologist, was instrumental in the international adoption of the metric carat as a weight standard for gems, and the Tiffany standard for sterling and platinum have been adopted as U.S. standards.[citation needed] The 128.54 carats (25.708 g) Tiffany Yellow Diamond is usually on display in the New York City flagship store.[36]

Tiffany designs were worn by famous U.S. families such as the Astors, Vanderbilts, Posts, Huttons and Morgans. Athletes, Hollywood stars, and European royalty were also Tiffany customers. However, like other similar diamond retailers, Tiffany's enacts a strict policy against the repurchasing of diamonds sold from its stores. In 1978, a female customer in New York City was denied after she attempted to sell back a diamond ring she had bought from Tiffany two years earlier for US$100,000. Writing for The Atlantic publication in 1982, Edward Jay Epstein explained the rationale for such a policy:

Retail jewelers, especially the prestigious Fifth Avenue stores, prefer not to buy back diamonds from customers, because the offer they would make would most likely be considered ridiculously low ... Most jewelers would prefer not to make a customer an offer that might be deemed insulting and also might undercut the widely held notion that diamonds go up in value. Moreover, since retailers generally receive their diamonds for engagement rings from wholesalers on consignment, and need not pay for them until they are sold, they would not readily risk their own cash to buy diamonds from customers. Rather than offer customers a fraction of what they paid for diamonds, retail jewelers almost invariably recommend to their clients firms that specialize in buying diamonds "retail."[37]

In November 2012, Tiffany & Co. negotiated a three-year contract to purchase diamonds from Russia's ALROSA for US$60 million annually. At the time of the ALROSA deal, the company held contracts with diamond mines in Australia, Botswana, Canada, Namibia, Russia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa.[31][38]

Colored gemstones[edit]

Tiffany offers jewelry incorporating a wide variety of colored gemstones including gems it played a role in popularizing such as tsavorite,[39] Kunzite, and morganite. In February 2015, a turquoise and aquamarine bib designed by Francesca Amfitheatrof, Tiffany’s design director, worn by Cate Blanchett at the 2015 Academy Awards, contrasted favorably with the white–diamond encrusted jewelry worn by other stars.[32]

Fragrances[edit]

Original 1989 Sample bottle of Tiffany for Men fragrance

In the late 1980s, Tiffany & Co. ventured into the fragrance business. Tiffany for women was launched in 1987, a floral perfume for women by perfumer Francois Demachy. At $220 per ounce, "Tiffany" was successfully marketed by major department stores across the United States.[40] Two years later, Tiffany for Men was launched in 1989 and developed by perfumer Jacques Polge. The bottle for both the men's and women's fragrance were designed by Pierre Dinand.[41] In 1995, Tiffany launched Trueste perfume for women which was later discontinued. Currently, Tiffany continues to produce the core fragrance product for men and the product for women.

Sports awards[edit]

Tiffany's is the maker of the Vince Lombardi Trophy, made annually to be awarded to the NFL team that wins the Super Bowl that year.[42]

Tiffany & Co. is the maker of the Larry O' Brien Trophy. The trophy that is given to the winner of the NBA Finals. Tiffany & Co. Has been manufacturing the trophies since 1977.

Tiffany & Co. also made the 2010 and 2012 World Series rings for the San Francisco Giants.[43]

The MLS championship trophy was also made by Tiffany & Co.[44]

The NASCAR Sprint Cup Series' Sprint Cup trophy is also made by Tiffany & Co. and is given to the champion every year, the most recent being given to 2016 champion Jimmie Johnson.

The Detroit Gold Cup trophy made originally by Tiffany & Co. in 1904, is awarded annually to the champion of the Detroit Gold Cup H1 Unlimited hydroplane race.

A £10,000 Rugby League World Cup trophy was made by Tiffanys to celebrate the centenary of Rugby league.[45]

NFL: AFC, NFC, Vince Lombardi, Pete Rozelle, NFL Rookie, Pro Bowl, Ed Thorpe,

Golf: Byron Nelson, Dicks Sporting Goods, LPGA Japan, LPGA Commissioner’s Trophy, LPGA International Crown, Northern Trust Open, Ocean Arena, Presidents Cup, FedEx Cup, Arnold Palmer Invitational,

Soccer: MLS Cup, MLS MVP,

Baseball: World Series, Home Run Derby, MVP World Series, World Baseball Classic, Commissioner’s Historic Achievement,

Horse Racing: Arlington Park, Belmont, Triple Crown, Woodlawn Vase, Polo Challenge, Kentucky Derby,

NBA: Larry O’Brien, MVP, Western Conference, Eastern Conference, WNBA: Global Community Cup

Tennis: US Open Championship, US Open Series Championship,

Other: ING NYC Marathon Medallions and Rudin Tray, NASCAR Sprint Cup, Vanderbilt Cup, Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year, Woodruff Cup, Viking Rowing,

Rings: NY Giants (2007, 2010) NO Saints (2009) SF Giants (2010, 2012) USA Basketball (2010, 2012) LA Kings (2012, 2014) LA Galaxy (2012) Seattle Seahawks (2012)

Current designers and collections[edit]

  • Elsa Peretti's collections include Bean, Diamonds by the Yard, Open Heart, Sevillana, and Teardrop.
  • Paloma Picasso's collections include Loving Heart and Sugar Stacks.
  • Jean Schlumberger
  • Francesca Amfitheatrof collections include The Art of the Sea and the Tiffany T collection.[32]

In popular culture[edit]

Tiffany and Co. has been mentioned on the titles of several works, such as the Breakfast at Tiffany's play and that play's namesakes, a famous film from 1961 starring Audrey Hepburn and a 1995 alternative rock song.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

  • Yeojin Bae
  • Clara Driscoll (Tiffany glass designer)
  • Walter Hoving
  • John Loring
  • Paloma Picasso
  • Jean Schlumberger (jewelry designer)
  • Camille Le Tallec
  • Louis Comfort Tiffany
  • Tiffany glass
  • Tiffany (NJ) Inc. v. eBay Inc.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tiffany & Co (TIF) annual SEC income statement filing via Wikinvest
  2. ^ a b Tiffany & Co (TIF) annual SEC balance sheet filing via Wikinvest
  3. ^ a b "SEC Form 10-K". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2014-01-31. Retrieved 2014-10-31. 
  4. ^ "Tiffany & Company". New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  5. ^ Cohen, Patricia. "Tiffany_and_co". The New York Times. 
  6. ^ a b c "History of Tiffany & Company – FundingUniverse". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  7. ^ "Tiffany & Co. For The Press | About Tiffany & Co. | Tiffany & Co. History | United States". Press.tiffany.com. Retrieved 2015-08-01. 
  8. ^ "CUSHION CUT Archives". Awegirls. Retrieved 2015-08-01. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "History of Tiffany & Company – FundingUniverse". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  10. ^ R. J. Mitchell and M. D. R. Leys (1958). A History of London Life. London, England: Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 182–4. 
  11. ^ a b c "Tiffany & Company | The Tiffany Story | United States". Tiffany.com. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  12. ^ a b Christopher Gray (July 2, 2006). "Before Tiffany & Co. Moved Uptown". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  13. ^ "Tiffany & Company | A Tiffany Diamond | Our Promise | Tiffany Diamond Certificate | United States". Tiffany.com. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  14. ^ Birnie, Michael (2003-04-27). ""Tiffany" Medal of Honor Comes to Navy Museum". U.S. Navy Museum. United States Navy. Archived from the original on 2009-09-06. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  15. ^ Tillman, Barrett (2003). Above and Beyond: The Aviation Medals of Honor. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 3. 
  16. ^ "History of the Medal of Honor". Navy Medal of Honor (1913). Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved 2010-07-23. 
  17. ^ "Image not available". Corbisimages.com. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  18. ^ "Presidential China". The White House. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  19. ^ "Party Politics" Entertaining at the White House" (PDF). National First Ladies Library. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  20. ^ "The Tiffany & Co. Foundation | About the Foundation". Tiffanyandcofoundation.org. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  21. ^ "Tiffany sues eBay, says fake items sold on Web site". USA Today. March 22, 2004. 
  22. ^ "Tiffany, Inc. v. eBay" (PDF). April 1, 2010. 
  23. ^ 上戸彩:超高価ケータイ「ないしょにしてね」 (in Japanese). Sports Nippon. Archived from the original on 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  24. ^ Chad Bray (4 July 2013). "Tiffany executive gem theft charges". The Australian. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  25. ^ "Tiffany CEO Out After Less Than 2 Years Because of Poor Sales". Fortune. Retrieved 2017-02-06. 
  26. ^ Holly Hayes (1978-06-02). "Tiffany and Company Building - New York, New York". Gohistoric.com. Retrieved 2015-08-01. 
  27. ^ Potts, M. (1989) "The Swanky Side of Fairfax Square" Washington Post
  28. ^ "Tiffany abre em SP primeira filial na América Latina" (in Portuguese). Estadão. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  29. ^ "Quem entra na Tiffany acaba se apaixonando" (in Portuguese). Terra. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  30. ^ Pardy, Sasha M (2009-03-13). "Tiffany & Company Shuttering Iridesse Pearl Jewelry Chain". Costar.com. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
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