List of diamonds - Wikipedia tiffany diamanter

List of diamonds

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A number of large or extraordinary diamonds have gained fame, both as exquisite examples of the beautiful nature of diamonds and because of the famous people who wore, bought, and sold them. A partial list of famous diamonds in history follows.

Name Uncut
weight
(carat)
Cut
weight
(carat)
Color Country/region of origin Description Image
26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union[1][2] 342.57 yellow
Russia / USSR
Mined at the Mir kimberlitic pipe (Yakutia, Russia) in 1980. It is the largest gem diamond ever found in Russia or the former USSR. It is the size of a pigeon's egg and is currently kept (as of 2016) in the Russian Diamond Fund (Moscow Kremlin.)
Akbar Shah 116, later 71.7 colorless
India
An Indian diamond which became famous during the days of the Mughal Empire. A diamond with a roughly pear-shaped outline and random faceting, including two Persian inscriptions, the first reading "Shah Akbar, the Grand King, 1028 A.H." (the letters mean Anno Hegirae). The second inscription read "To the Lord of Two Worlds, 1039 A.H. Shah Jehan". The diamond was reportedly part of the original Peacock Throne. Purchased in 1886 in Istanbul by London merchant George Blogg, who re-cut it from 116 carats (23.2 g) to a pear-shape of 71.70 carats (14.340 g), thus destroying the historic inscriptions. Blogg sold the stone in 1887 to Malhar Rao Gaekwad of Baroda, India who was the last known owner and the stone's whereabouts are presently unknown.
Alexander Pushkin[1][2] 320.65 colorless
Russia / USSR
Mined at the Udachnaya kimberlitic pipe (Yakutia, Russia) in 1989. It is the second largest gem diamond ever found in Russia or the former USSR and is currently kept (as of 2016) in the Russian Diamond Fund (Moscow Kremlin.)
Allnatt Diamond 101.29 yellow
South Africa (disputed)
A 101.29-carat (20.258 g) antique cushion-shaped brilliant fancy vivid yellow diamond which is believed to have been found in the Premier mine in the South African Republic. It got the name Allnatt[3] after one of its owners, Major Alfred Ernest Allnatt. The diamond was sold for a little more than $3 million at Christie's auction in Geneva in May 1996.
De Allnatt diamant.jpg
Allnatt Diamond
Amarillo Starlight 16.37 7.54 colorless
United States of America
The largest diamond found by a park visitor in the Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas since 1972, when it was established as a state park. It was found by W. W. Johnson of Amarillo, Texas in 1975 and was a 16.37 carats (3.27 g) white diamond, but it has since been cut into a 7.54 carats (1,510 mg) marquise shape.
Amsterdam Diamond 33.74 black
Africa
A 33.74 carat (6.748 g) pear-shaped black diamond which sold for $352,000 in 2001.
Archduke Joseph 78.54 76.02 colorless
India
Historical cushion-shaped, D colour, internally flawless Golconda diamond, sold on 13 November 2012 by Christies to an anonymous buyer for US$21.4M.[4]
Argyle Pink Jubilee 12.76 8.01 pink
Australia
Argyle Pink Jubilee[5] is the largest pink diamond ever found in Australia weighing 12.76 carats. The diamond was found in Western Australia in Argyle Mine who is the largest producer of pink diamonds in the world.
Ashberg Diamond 102.48 amber
South Africa
102.48 carats (20.496 g)
Aurora Butterfly of Peace A display of 240 fancy-colored diamonds.
Aurora Butterfly of Peace in daylight 01.jpg
The 240 diamonds
Aurora Pyramid of Hope A display of 296 diamonds of natural colors.
Aurora Diamond Collection.jpg
The 296 diamonds
Beau Sancy 34.98 colorless
India
A 34.98-carat (6.996 g)[6] pear-shaped diamond, which sold for US $10 million in 2012.[7] Not to be confused with the Sancy.
Beau-sancy.jpg
Beau Sancy
Black Orlov 67.5 black
India
a 67.50-carat (13.500 g) cushion-cut black diamond, also called the Eye of Brahma Diamond.
Blue Moon of Josephine Diamond 29.6 12.03 blue
South Africa
Found in the Cullinan mine in 2014, cushion-shaped, and originally named the 'Blue Moon' diamond. Purchased for a record breaking 48.6 million Swiss francs (US48.4 million) at a Sotheby's auction in Geneva on 11 November 2015 by the Hong Kong tycoon Joseph Lau. He renamed it "The Blue Moon of Josephine" in honor of his daughter. The previous day he had bought the 'Sweet Josephine' diamond for her.[8][9]
Briolette of India 90.38 colorless
India
(See article)
90.38 carats (18.076 g) - Cut by Cartier around 1910.
Centenary Diamond 599 273.85 colorless
South Africa
273.85 carats (54.770 g), modified heart-shaped brilliant, the world's largest colorless (grade D), flawless diamond.
Chloe Diamond 84.37 colorless
Angola
Sold in November 2007 at Sotheby's in Geneva to Georges Marciano of the Guess clothing line for 18.2 million SFr, the second-highest price ever paid for a diamond on auction.[10]
Cora Sun-Drop Diamond 110.03 yellow
South Africa
Largest known pear-shape fancy vivid yellow diamond, found in South-Africa[11][12]
Creator[1][2] 298.48 colored
Russia
Found in a placer mining factory in the Lower Lena River area, Yakutia, in 2004. It is the third largest gem diamond ever found in Russia or the former USSR and is currently kept (as of 2016) in the Russian Diamond Fund (Moscow Kremlin.)
Cross of Asia 280 79.12 yellow
South Africa
Discovered in 1902 at the Jagersfontein Mine as a 280-carat (56 g) crystal. The first cut was to 142 carats (28.4 g); it was then cut three more times until, in 1993, it was a 79.12 carats (15.824 g) radiant-cut with table facets that resemble a Maltese cross.[13]
Cullinan Diamond 3106.75 various colorless
South Africa
Discovered in 1905, the Cullinan is, at 3106.75 carats (621.35 g), the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found. It was cut into 105 diamonds including the Cullinan I or the Great Star of Africa, 530.2 carats (106.04 g), and the Cullinan II or the Lesser Star of Africa, 317.4 carats (63.48 g), both of which are now part of the British Crown Jewels.
Cullinan Diamond and some of its cuts - copy.jpg
Nine of the diamonds
Cullinan I 3106.75 530.4 colorless
South Africa
The largest stone obtained from Cullinan diamond.[14] Cullinan I or Great Star of Africa with weight of 530.4 carats it is the second largest cut diamond in the world. Currently located in the head of the Sceptre of the British Crown Jewels British Royal family.
Rough cullinan diamond.jpg
Cullinan II 3106.75 317.4 colorless
South Africa
The second largest stone obtained from Cullinan diamond. Cullinan II[15] or Lesser Star of Africa with weight of 317.4 carats is also one of the largest cut diamonds in the world. As Cullinan I, it is also in the British crown jewels located in the Imperial State Crown British Royal family.
Daria-i-Noor 182 pink
India
The largest pink diamond in the world, approximately 182 carats (36.4 g), originally from India but now part of Iranian Crown Jewels. Its exact weight is not known; 182 carats (36.4 g) is an estimate.
Darya-e Noor Diamond of Iran.png
The Daria-i-Noor
Deepdene 104.52 yellow
South Africa
Widely considered to be the largest artificially irradiated diamond in the world, at 104.52 carats (20.904 g).
DeYoung Red Diamond 5.03 brownish-red
South Africa
Weighing 5.03 carats (1.006 g), the fourth-largest known red diamond GIA graded as the FANCY DARK REDDISH BROWN, was bought in a flea market on a hatpin by Sidney deYoung a prominent Boston estate jewelry merchant. It was donated by him to the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History.
DeYoung Red Diamond 01.jpg
Dresden Green Diamond 41 green
India
41-carat (8.2 g) antique pear-shaped brilliant - its color is the result of natural irradiation
Dresden Grün Diamant copy.jpg
Dresden Green (glass replica)
Earth Star Diamond 111.59 brown
South Africa
a 111.59-carat (22.318 g) pear-shaped diamond with a strong coffee-like brown color.
Eureka Diamond 21.25 10.73 yellow-brown
South Africa
the first diamond found in South Africa, a yellow-brown 21.25-carat (4.250 g) stone (before cutting) resulting in a finished diamond 10.73 carats (2.146 g)
Empress Eugénie (diamond) 52
Brazil
52-carat (10.4 g) antique pear-shaped brilliant with an odd, random facet pattern
Esperanza Diamond 8.52 4.602 D IF
United States of America
Discovered in 2015, it is the 5th largest diamond ever discovered at the Crater of Diamonds State Park, Arkansas Identified as a Type IIa crystal, the 8.52 carat diamond was cut and polished by Mike Botha into a custom-designed 4.605 carat Triolette shape during a week long event in North Little Rock and was graded a D IF, 0 Polish & 0 Symmetry by the American Gem Society Laboratories- making it the most valuable American diamond.
Esperanza Diamond Triolette.jpg
Esperanza Diamond
Excelsior Diamond 970 various colorless
South Africa
The largest known diamond in the world prior to the Cullinan at 970 carats (194 g), it was later cut into 10 pieces of various sizes (13–68 carats)
Florentine Diamond 137.27 yellow
India
A lost diamond, light yellow with a weight of 137.27 carats (27.45 g).
Florentine Diamond copy.jpg
Florentine Diamond (glass replica)
French Blue (or Tavernier Blue before its cut) ≈112 69 blue
India
(Lost during French Revolution) Largest blue diamond allegedly discovered up to this date before its cut, it was faceted by Jean Pittan to be the main French Crown Jewel. Lost, and then almost certainly cut into the Hope Diamond.
Golden Eye Diamond 43.51 yellow
South Africa
A large, radiant-cut fancy intense yellow diamond (43.5 carats).
Golden Jubilee Diamond 755.5 545.67 yellow-brown
South Africa
The Unnamed Brown as originally named, the Golden Jubilee[16] is the largest faceted diamond ever cut at 545.67 carats (109.13 g), outweighing Cullinan I by 15.27 carats
Graff Pink 24.78 pink
India
24.78-carat (4.956 g) A 24.78-carat Fancy Intense Pink diamond and, until the sale of the Sweet Josephine diamond in November 2015, it was the most expensive jewel ever sold at auction. Previously owned by Harry Winston and an unnamed private collector, and bought by Laurence Graff (November 2010).[17]
Great Chrysanthemum Diamond 104.15 orange-brown
South Africa
104.15 carats (20.830 g)
Great Mogul Diamond ≈780 280
India
Fabled 280-carat (56 g) mogul-cut diamond, now lost, although presumed by historians to have been re-cut as the Orlov.
Great Mogul Diamond copy.jpg
Great Mogul Diamond (replica)
Gruosi Diamond 115.34 black
India
A heart-shaped black diamond, weighing 115.34 carats (23.068 g).
Heart of Eternity Diamond 27.64 blue
South Africa
Perhaps the largest fancy vivid blue, weighing 27.64 carats (5.528 g).
Hope Diamond ≈112 45.52 blue
India
45.52 carats (9.104 g), is a Fancy Dark Grayish-Blue diamond and supposedly cursed. Almost certainly cut from the French Blue Diamond. Part of the Smithsonian Collection.
HopeDiamond (1).JPG
The Hope Diamond
Hortensia Diamond 20 peach
India
Peach (slightly orangey pink) color, formerly part of the French Crown Jewels. Displayed in the Louvre.
Incomparable Diamond 890 407.48 brownish-yellow
Democratic Republic of Congo
A brownish-yellow diamond of 407.48 carats (81.496 g) cut from an 890 carat (178 g) rough diamond of the same name - it appeared on eBay in 2002. Internally Flawless clarity. Several other smaller diamonds were also cut from the crystal.
Jacob Diamond 184.5 colorless
India
Cushion cut weighing 184.5 carats (36.90 g) also known as Imperial Diamond & Victoria Diamond.
The Jane Seymour 2.08 blue
Russia
Cushion cut weighing 2.08 carats (416 mg)
Jones Diamond 34.48 blueish-white
United States of America
Weighing 34.48 carats (6.896 g), found in West Virginia by the Jones family. Also known as the Punch Jones Diamond.
Jubilee Diamond 245.3 colorless
South Africa
Originally known as the Reitz Diamond; perhaps the sixth-largest in the world at 245.35 carats (49.070 g).
Lesedi La Rona 1111 colorless
Botswana
Found in Botswana in 2015, at 222 g this is the second-largest gem-quality diamond ever found.
Kazanjian Red Diamond 35 5.05 brownish-red
South Africa
A 5.05-carat (1.010 g) Emerald-cut red diamond formerly known simply as "Red Diamond". This is the third largest known Red diamond. It was cut from a 35-carat (7.0 g) piece of boart discovered near Lichtenburg, South Africa. It reappeared in 2007 after a 37-year absence from sight, and was purchased by Kazanjian Brothers Inc.
Koh-i-Noor 793 105.6 colorless
India
A 105.6 carat (21.6 g) white of Indian origin, with a long and turbulent history and a good deal of legend surrounding it. After belonging to Kakatiya Kings and then to various Delhi Sultante and Persian rulers, it was gifted (some claim forcefully) by the Maharaja Duleep Singh of Lahore to Queen Victoria during the British Raj, and is now part of the Crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother.
Koh-i-Noor new version copy.jpg
Koh-i-noor (replica)
Koi Diamond 32+ white, orange and various
-
The colors of this sole and unique 32+ carat diamond evokes the well-known Koi fish legend and sacred symbolism cherished by East Asians. The graduations of color of white, orange, light yellow, darkblue and black colors in this diamond are reminiscent of ancient Chinese brush painting. The Koi Diamond has been certified by the GIA (Gemological Institute Of America).
KOI diamond.jpg
The Koi Diamond
Lesotho Brown 601 various pale brown
Lesotho
Was a stone originally 601 carats (120.2 g) with the largest stone 71.73 carats (14.346 g) after cutting.
Lesotho Promise 603 75 colorless
Lesotho
Is the 15th-largest diamond, the tenth-largest white diamond, and the largest diamond to be found in 13 years. The original stone was 603 carats (120.6 g), although the largest diamond after the cutting was 75 carats (15.0 g).
Martian Pink 12.04 pink
South Africa
Named by American jeweler Ronald Winston in 1976. Sold by auction in May 2012 for US $17 million, "the largest round fancy intense pink diamond to ever go under the hammer", according to Christie's.[18][19][20]
Millennium Star 777 203.04 colorless
Democratic Republic of Congo
at 203.04 carats (40.608 g) is the second-largest colorless (grade D), flawless diamond.
Moon of Baroda 24.04 yellow
India
Moon of Baroda[21] is pear-shape 24.04 carats (4.808 g) diamond and it was discovered in Vadodara (Baroda) in India.
Moussaieff Red Diamond 13 5.11 red
Brazil
the second largest known Red diamond, at 5.11 carats (1.022 g).
Nassak Diamond 43.38 blue-white
India
An emerald-cut of 43.38 carats (8.676 g), previously a triangular brilliant of about 80 carats.
Nizam Diamond 340 colorless
India
Reportedly 340 carats (68 g). Possibly a large colorless topaz. Whereabouts unknown.
Noor-ol-Ain Diamond 60 pink
India
Around 60 carats (12 g) originally from India but now part of the Iranian crown jewels.
Noor-ol-Ain tiara.png
Noor-ol-Ain
Ocean Dream Diamond 5.51 blue-green
Central Africa
The only known natural Fancy Deep Blue-Green, and weighs 5.51 carats (1.102 g).
Oppenheimer Blue 14.62 blue
South Africa
At the time of its sale in May 2016, it became the most expensive diamond in the world, selling for $50.6m (£34.7m).
Oppenheimer Diamond 253.7 yellow
South Africa
One of the largest gem-quality uncut diamonds in the world, at 253.7 carats (50.74 g).
Oppenheimer Diamond.jpg
Oppenheimer Diamond
Orlov 190 colorless
India
An Indian mogul cut rumored to have served as the eye of a Hindu statue, and currently is part of the Kremlin diamond fund, weighing approximately 190 carats (38 g).
Orlow (Diamant).jpg
Orlov
Paragon 137.82 colorless
Brazil
A shield-shaped diamond of 137.82 carats.[22]
Pigot Diamond 100 (est.) 47.38 colorless
India
A oval brilliant, once the largest diamond in England. Sold by lottery in 1801, auctioned by Christie's in 1802, current whereabouts unknown although a popular legend is that it was destroyed.
Pink Star 132.50 59.60 pink
Africa
Modified oval brilliant cut (step cut crown, brilliant pavilion), largest known fancy vivid pink, at 59.60 carats (11.920 g). Formerly known as the Steinmetz Pink, and the Pink Star.[23] Auctioned in Geneva by Sotheby's in 2013 for $83.187 million[24]
Polar Star Diamond 41.28 colorless
-
A colorless cushion-shaped stellar brilliant diamond weighing 41.28 carats (8.256 g).
Portuguese Diamond 127.01 pale yellow
Brazil
127-carat (25.4 g) antique emerald cut with a pale yellow body color and very strong blue fluorescence. Part of the Smithsonian's collection.
Portuguesediamondp.jpg
Portugueses Diamond
Premier Rose Diamond 137.0 colorless
South Africa
137.02-carat (27.4 g) stone cut from a 353.9-carat (70.8 g) rough gem of the same name.
Princie Diamond . 34.65 pink
India
Antique cushion-cut, fancy intense pink, natural color, VS2 clarity, type IIa, displays bright orangey-red fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light (G.I.A.'s lab data);[25][26] discovered 300 years ago in the Golconda mines[27]
Pumpkin Diamond 5.54 orange
Central African Republic
Perhaps the largest fancy vivid orange diamond (5.54 carats), modified cushion-shaped brilliant.
Raven Diamond 12.78 black
-
Trilliant cut black diamond purchased in 2011. The Raven is currently in a private collection in upstate NY.
CIMG0599-ravendiamond.JPG
Raven Diamond
Regent Diamond 410 140.64 white with pale blue
India
Weights 140.64 carats (28.128 g), is cushion-shaped stellar brilliant cut, formerly belonging to Louis XV, Louis XVI, and Napoleon Bonaparte, it now resides in the Louvre.
Regent (diamond) black.png
Regent Diamond (1907 drawing)
Sancy 55.23 pale yellow
India
A shield-shaped pale yellow diamond currently in the Louvre, weighing 55.23 carats (11.046 g).
Sancy (diamond) black.png
Sancy (1907 drawing)
Sergio 3150 carbonado
State of Bahia (Brazil)
Largest carbonado and largest rough diamond ever found.[28][29][30] Found in 1895.
Shah Diamond 88.7 pale yellow
India
Very old pale yellow diamond (found approximately in 1450 in India) currently housed in the Diamond Fund in Kremlin, weighing 88.7 carats (17.74 g).
Sierra Leone diamond 706
Sierra Leone
The discovery was made by Pastor Emmanuel Momoh in an artisanal mine in the village of Koyadu in eastern Kono district in 2017
Skull Star Diamond Pear-shaped pink diamond set in the forehead of Damien Hirst's For the Love of God sculpture.
Spirit of de Grisogono Diamond 312 black
Central African Republic
Mogul cut, 312 carats (62.4 g), the world's largest cut black diamond.
Spoonmaker's Diamond 86 colorless
-
Circa 86-carat (17 g) diamond housed in Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. Also known as Kaşıkçı Elması
Star of the East 95 colorless
India (disputed)
A 95-carat (19 g) stone once owned by Evalyn Walsh McLean of Washington DC, who also owned the Hope Diamond. It was also owned by King Farouk of Egypt, although he never settled the bill.
Star of Sierra Leone 968.9 various colorless
Republic of Sierra Leone
cut into smaller pieces, the largest of which is 53.96 carats (10.792 g).
Star of Sierra Leone.gif
Star of Sierra Leone
Star of South Africa 83.5 47.69 colorless
South Africa
also known as the Dudley Diamond. This must not be confused with the Star of Africa. The Star of South Africa was the initial name given to this diamond, when it was purchased as an 83.5-carat (16.70 g) rough diamond. The diamond is a D-color, pear-shaped stellar brilliant cut stone, weighing 47.69 carats (9.538 g).
Star of the Season 100.10 colorless
-
a 100.10-carat (20.020 g) pear-shaped D-color, Internally Flawless stone. At $16,548,750 US it held the world record for the highest price paid for a diamond at auction until the sale of the Wittelsbach-Graff diamond in 2008.
Star of the South 128.48 light pinkish-brown
Brazil
Found in Brazil in 1853. Cartier is the last known owners of the diamond (mid-2000s).
Star of the South copy.jpg
Star of the South (replica)
Strawn-Wagner Diamond 3.03 1.09 colorless
United States of America
A diamond which received a "perfect" 0/0/0 rating from the American Gem Society, weighing 3.03 carats (0.606 g) rough and 1.09 carats (0.218 g) cut. On exhibit at Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas, where it was found in 1990.
Stuart or Holland Diamond 39.75 light blue-green Pear shaped rose cut diamond. Bought in 1690 as a rough stone by Queen Mary II Stuart, wife of King William of Orange. Therefor also referred to as the Holland diamond. Belongs to the Dutch Royal House.
Sweet Josephine Diamond 16.08 fancy vivid pink The largest cushion-shaped stone classified in the elite “fancy vivid” category to ever come to auction. Owned by an American family of 15 years, it was sold at auction in November 2015 to Hong Kong billionaire Joseph Lau, and renamed by him the 'Sweet Josephine' after his daughter.[31] The next day he bought the 'Blue Moon of Josephine' diamond for her.[32]
Taylor-Burton Diamond 68 colorless
South Africa
Purchased by Richard Burton for his wife Elizabeth Taylor, weighing 68 carats (13.6 g).
Tereshchenko diamond 42 blue
India
42-carat (8.4 g) antique pear brilliant cut.
Tereschenko
Tiffany Yellow Diamond 280 128.54 yellow
South Africa
Antique modified cushion-shaped stellar brilliant cut, on display at Tiffany & Co.'s New York City store. It weighs 128.54 carats (25.708 g).
Tiffany Diamond2.jpg
Tiffany Yellow Diamond
The Symbolic Yellow Diamond 114.63 vivid yellow
South Africa
Antique cushion-shaped brilliant cut, which is believed to have been found in the Premier mine in The South African Republic. It weighs 114.63 carats (22.926 g).
The Symbolic Yellow Diamond.jpg
Symbolic Yellow
Uncle Sam 40.23 12 brown
United States of America
The largest discovered in the US, emerald-cut, M color (pale brown), VVS2 clarity.
Vargas diamond 726.6 various blue-white
Brazil
Cut into 29 smaller diamonds.
Williamson pink diamond 23.6 pink
Tanzania
Given to Queen Elizabeth II on her wedding in 1947 and later set in a brooch. "The most famous pink diamond in the world" according to the BBC.[18]
Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond 31.06 blue
India
31.06 carats (6.212 g), Fancy Deep Blue, cushion modified brilliant.[33] Was cut down from the 35.56 Wittelsbach Blue after being purchased in 2008.[33] At the time of the sale it was the highest price ever paid for a diamond at auction.[34]
Wittelsbach diamond, before beeing recut by Graff.png
Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond

See also[edit]

  • List of largest rough diamonds

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "АЛРОСА д jwunbxtv. negozio online tiffanyобыла в Якутии алмаз в 235 карат". www.forbes.ru. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "Крупнейшие алмазы, найденные на территории России". www.awros.ru. Retrieved 30 June 2016. 
  3. ^ "Allnatt diamond". diamondsinstyle.com. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "'Perfect' Archduke Joseph diamond sells for $21m". BBC News. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  5. ^ "Argyle Pink Jubilee - The largest pink diamond ever found in Australia". diamondsinstyle.com. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  6. ^ Adamson, Thomas (23 April 2012). "Sotheby's to auction 400-yr-old diamond". Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  7. ^ "One of world's oldest diamonds sells for $10m". BBC News. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  8. ^ "Billionaire buys Blue Moon diamond for 7yo daughter for record $68m". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 12 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  9. ^ "Billionaire buys 7-year-old daughter Blue Moon diamond for record $48m". The Guardian. 12 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "This beaut is worth a cool $18 million". The Sydney Morning Herald. Reuters. November 15, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2015. 
  11. ^ "110,3-Carat 'Cora Sun-Drop' Diamond on Show in London!". brillanten.com. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  12. ^ "Rare 'Sun-Drop' Diamond to Sell for Up to $15 Million". Voice of America. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  13. ^ Fryer, C.W., ed. (Spring 1995). "Gemological Abstracts". Gems & Gemology. 31 (1): 79. 
  14. ^ "Cullinan - The world's largest diamond".

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Diamante

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Disambig grey.svg Nota: Para outros significados, veja Diamante (desambiguação).
Diamante
Alguns diamantes espalhados demonstram as suas várias facetas refletidas.
Categoria Minerais Nativos
Cor Tipicamente amarelo, marrom ou cinza a incolor. Menos frequente azul, verde, preto, translúcido branco, rosa, violeta, laranja, roxo e vermelho.
Fórmula química C
Propriedades cristalográficas
Sistema cristalino (Cúbico)
Hábito cristalino Octaedro
Propriedades ópticas
Transparência Transparente à subtransparente até translúcido
Índice refrativo 2.418 (em 500 nm)
Birrefringência Nenhum
dispersão 0.044
Pleocroísmo Nenhum
Fluorescência ultravioleta Incolor
Propriedades físicas
Polimento Adamantinoa
Peso molecular 12.01 ul=g/mol
Peso específico 3.52 +/- 0.01
Densidade 3.5–3.53 g/cm3
Dureza 10
Ponto de fusão Dependente de pressão
Clivagem 111 (perfeito em quatro direções)
Fratura Concoidal
Brilho Adamantino

O diamante é um cristal sob uma forma alotrópica do carbono, de fórmula química C. É a forma triangular estável do carbono em pressões acima de 6 GPa (60 kbar). Comercializados como pedras preciosas, os diamantes possuem um alto valor agregado. Normalmente, o diamante cristaliza com estrutura cúbica e pode ser sintetizado industrialmente. Outra forma de cristalização do diamante é a hexagonal, menos comum na natureza e com dureza menor (9,5 na escala de Mohs). A característica que difere os diamantes de outras formas alotrópicas, é o fato de cada átomo de carbono estar hibridizado em sp³, e encontrar-se ligado a outros 4 átomos de carbono por meio de ligações covalentes em um arranjo tridimensional tetraédrico. O diamante pode ser convertido em grafite, o alótropo termodinamicamente estável em baixas pressões, aplicando-se temperaturas acima de 1.500 °C sob vácuo ou atmosfera inerte. Em condições ambientes, essa conversão é extremamente lenta, tornando-se negligenciada.

Cristaliza no sistema cúbico, geralmente em cristais com forma octaédrica (8 faces) ou hexaquisoctaédrica (48 faces), frequentemente com superfícies curvas, arredondadas, incolores ou coradas. Os diamantes de cor escura são pouco conhecidos e o seu valor como gema é menor devido ao seu aspecto pouco atrativo. Diferente do que se pensou durante anos, os diamantes não são eternos pois o carbono definha com o tempo, mas os diamantes duram mais que qualquer ser humano.

Sendo carbono puro, o diamante arde quando exposto a uma chama, transformando-se em dióxido de carbono. É solúvel em diversos ácidos e infusível, exceto a altas pressões.

O diamante é o mais duro material de ocorrência natural que se conhece, com uma dureza de 10 (valor máximo da escala de Mohs). Isto significa que não pode ser riscado por nenhum outro mineral ou substância, exceto o próprio diamante, funcionando como um importante material abrasivo. No entanto, é muito frágil, esse fato deve-se à clivagem octaédrica perfeita segundo {111}. Estas duas características fizeram com que o diamante não fosse talhado durante muitos anos. A maior jazida do mundo, revelada pela Rússia ao mundo em 2012, porém de conhecimento do Kremlin desde 1970, tem capacidade para suprir diamantes, mesmo para uso industrial, pelos próximos 3 mil anos.

A jazida conta com trilhões de quilates, e conta com 10 vezes mais diamantes do que todas as jazidas conhecidas existentes no mundo hoje, juntas. Ela situa-se numa cratera com extensão de 100 km entre a região de Krasnoiarsk e da república da Iakútia na Sibéria, Rússia. Tal cratera teve origem há 35 milhões de anos atrás, com a queda de um asteroide, e seus diamantes são duas vezes mais resistentes, duros, do que os encontrados em outro lugares, sua origem é decorrente da pressão e do calor gerado no impacto. Tal durabilidade é do interesse de certos setores industriais pois é ótimo e de extrema utilidade para confecção de equipamentos da indústria eletrônica e ótica, assim como em equipamentos para perfuração do solo.[1] Outras jazidas no mundo são de África do Sul.Outras jazidas importantes situam-se na Rússia (segundo maior produtor) e na Austrália (terceiro maior produtor), entre outras de menor importância.[2]

A densidade é de 3,48. O brilho é adamantino, derivado do elevadíssimo índice de refracção (2,42). Recorde-se que todos os minerais com índice de refracção maior ou igual a 1,9 possuem este brilho. No entanto, os cristais não cortados podem apresentar um brilho gorduroso. Pode apresentar fluorescência, ou seja, a incidência dos raios ultravioleta produzem luminescência com cores variadas originando colorações azul, rosa, amarela ou verde.

Índice

  • 1 Propriedades
    • 1.1 Condutividade elétrica
    • 1.2 Outras
  • 2 Aplicações, Classificação e Valor
    • 2.1 Aplicações
    • 2.2 Classificação e valor
  • 3 Talha
  • 4 Diamantes sintéticos
  • 5 Leilões
  • 6 Referências
  • 7 Ver também
  • 8 Ligações externas

Propriedades

Condutividade elétrica

Alguns diamantes azuis são semicondutores naturais, em contraste com a maioria dos diamantes, que são excelentes isolantes elétricos.[3] Substancial condutividade é comumente observada em diamantes não dopados crescidos por deposição química a vapor, podendo ser removida usando certos tratamentos para a superfície.[4][5] a

Mapa dos principais países produtores no mundo

Outras

Os diamantes são lipofílicos e hidrofóbicos, o que significa que a superfície de um diamante não pode ser molhada por água mas pode facilmente perder o brilho ou ser molhada por óleo.[6]

Sob temperatura ambiente os diamantes não reagem com a maioria dos reagentes químicos, incluindo vários tipos de ácidos e álcalis. Assim, ácidos e álcalis podem ser usados para refinar diamantes sintéticos.[6] Pode-se contudo se incendiar o diamante no ar.[7]

Aplicações, Classificação e Valor

Uma face de um diamante bruto.

Aplicações

O uso como adorno (gema) é milenar, na Índia era usado para identificar as castas.

Por ter grande índice de refração, é a gema mais brilhante. Por ser a substância mais dura da natureza, "não arranha" e por isso, seu brilho é eterno.

Os diamantes que não tem uso joalheiro terão uso industrial, pois são grandes abrasivos.

O valor da gema diamante (uso joalheiro), como o de todas as coisas, depende da oferta e da procura. Como o diamante é um mineral abundante na natureza, na década de 1950, o Instituto Gemologico Americano (GIA - Gemological Institute of America) criou um padrão de classificação para tornar possível a comercialização do diamante globalmente. Esse padrão foi criado para classificar diamantes da escala de incolores à matizadas (levemente amarelado ou acinzentado), os diamantes coloridos naturalmente são mais raros e possuem classificação diferente.

A classificação GIA para a escala de incolor à matizada é baseada em 4 variáveis, são elas: PESO, COR, PUREZA e LAPIDAÇÃO. Em inglês essas variáveis se chamam Carat, Color, Clarity e Cut, formando assim os 4 C's do Diamante. São esses itens que tornam um diamante mais valioso que outro.

Classificação e valor

  • Peso: A unidade de medida para pesar gemas é o Quilate (ct), em inglês Carat, 1 quilate equivale a 0,2 gramas. O preço de um diamante de 2ct é muito maior do que o de dois diamantes de 1ct, pois um diamante de 2ct é muito mais raro. Nessa variável, quanto mais pesado melhor.
  • Cor: A classificação de cor leva em consideração o tom de cada diamante comparado ao tom de gemas matrizes que são guias de referência criadas pelo GIA. Nessa variável, quanto "mais incolor" melhor.
D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P ... Z
  • Pureza: A classificação de pureza mensura a quantidade, o tamanho e as cores de inclusões internas e de características da superfície. Convencionou-se que essas características incluídas e superficiais, tem que ser vistas em uma lupa de 10x de aumento. Nesta variável, quanto menos melhor.
F - IF - VVS1 - VVS2 - VS1 - VS2 - SI1 - SI2 - I1 - I2 - I3
  • Lapidação: É a ação do homem para tirar da gema bruta o melhor nessas 3 variáveis anteriores sem comprometer o brilho, o "fogo" e a vida do diamante. A lapidação brilhante é a lapidação mais popular do diamante, a ponto de ser confundida com o próprio nome do mineral diamante. A lapidação brilhante, também conhecida como lapidação completa, foi projetada para que toda a luz que entre na gema seja refletida para cima fazendo com que o diamante brilhe ainda mais. Nesta variável, quanto mais brilho, mais fogo, mais vida melhor. Sem esquecer que o formato da gema também sofre impacto no seu preço pela procura, um diamante brilhante redondo pode ser mais desejado que um diamante triangular.

Talha

Uma vez selecionados, os diamantes são cortados e talham-se ao longo de direções nas quais a dureza é menor. Uma talha bem realizada é aquela que realça o foco, ou seja, o conjunto de reflexos de cores derivados dos reflexos.

Diamantes sintéticos

Atualmente, existe a possibilidade de fazer diamantes sintéticos, submetendo grafite a pressões elevadas. No entanto, o resultado são quase sempre cristais de dimensões reduzidas para poderem ser comercializados como gemas. A chance de adquirir um diamante sintético no lugar de um natural é quase nula, sendo inclusive inferior à possibilidade de encontrar gemas que os comerciantes dizem ser diamante mas que não o são realmente.

A estabilidade térmica do diamante sintético é menor do que o natural, em ambiente oxidativo, como ao ar, o diamante sintético oxida (grafitiza) a temperaturas em torno de 850 °C. Já em atmosfera controlada sua resistência a grafitização é próxima aos 1200 °C.

Embora já em 1880 J. Balentine Hannay, um químico escocês, tivesse produzido minúsculos cristais, só em 1955 cientistas da General Electric Company conseguiram um método eficaz para a síntese de diamantes. Este feito foi creditado a Francis Bundy, Tracy Hall, Herbert M. Strong e Robert H. Wentorf, depois de investigações efetuadas por Percy W. Bridgeman na Universidade de Harvard. Os diamantes assim conseguidos eram de qualidade industrial (não gemológica), sendo hoje em dia produzidos em larga escala. Cristais com a qualidade de pedras preciosas, só se conseguiram sintetizar em 1970 por Strong e Wentorf, num processo que exige pressões e temperaturas extremamente elevadas.

Leilões

Um diamante azul com cerca de 12,03 quilates foi vendido, em 11 de novembro de 2015, pela leiloeira Sotheby's, em Genebra, por um preço recorde de 43,2 milhões de francos suíços (cerca de 40 milhões de euros). Foi o "preço mais alto por quilate" alguma vez conseguido por diamantes.[8]

Encontrado a 16 de novembro de 2015 na mina de Karowe, no Botsuana, o ‘Lesedi la Rona’ (Nossa luz) foi a leilão dia 29 de junho de 2016 em Londres pela Sotheby’s. Esperava-se que pudesse atingir um valor superior a 60 milhões de euros. Tem 1109 quilates (222 gramas) é quase do tamanho de uma bola de ténis e é o maior diamante descoberto em mais de cem anos.[9] Não foi vendido, pois não apareceram interessados.

Em setembro de 2016, o diamante mais caro de sempre foi comprado pela empresa De Grisogono, num leilão privado da Sothebys, de Londres por 56 milhões de euros. O diamante tem o nome de “The Constellation”, tem 813 quilates, mede 6 centímetros e foi encontrado no Botswana.[10]

Referências

  1. «Cientistas revelam maior jazida de diamantes do mundo» 
  2. Brasil Escola. «Duro como Diamante». Consultado em 3 de março de 2012 
  3. Collins, A.T. (1993). «The Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconducting Diamond». Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 342 (1664): 233–244. Bibcode:1993RSPTA.342..233C. doi:10.1098/rsta.1993.0017 
  4. Landstrass, M.I.; Ravi, K.V. (1989). «Resistivity of chemical vapor deposited diamond films». Applied Physics Letters. 55 (10): 975–977. doi:10.1063/1.101694 
  5. Zhang, W.; Ristein, J.; Ley, L. (2008). «Hydrogen-terminated diamond electrodes. II. Redox activity». Physical Review E. 78 (4): 041603. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.78.041603 
  6. a b «Basic Properties of Diamond». DiamondBladeSelect.com 
  7. The Feyman Lectures on Physics - Capítulo 1 - Atoms in motion.
  8. «Diamante azul vendido por 40 milhões de euros» 
  9. «Maior diamante dos últimos 100 anos vai a leilão» 
  10. «Isabel dos Santos compra o diamante mais caro da história» 

Ver também

Ver também: Lista de países por produção de diamante
  • Carbonado (diamante negro)
  • Diamante Hope
  • Material superduro
  • Wittlesbach Azul

Ligações externas

Commons
O Commons possui imagens e outras mídias sobre Diamante
Wikiquote
O Wikiquote possui citações de ou sobre: Diamante
  • (em inglês) O maior diamante da galáxia
  • BPM3093 - O Maior Diamante do Universo
  • El diamante
  • (em inglês) 50+ livros/5000 páginas históricos em relação a diamante Robert Boyle, Albertus Magnus, US Geological Survey, George Frederick Kunz etc.
  • Artigo sobre diamantes. Geól. João Tarcísio de Almeida, DNPM/BA, 2007.
  • Revista Superinteressante - Ed. Abril/2006
  • (em inglês) World Diamond Bourse
  • Ferramentas Diamantadas (em português)
  • Portal da química
Obtida de "https://pt.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diamante&oldid=50252499"


Diamant

Wikipedia's Diamant as translated by GramTrans

Nedenstående er en automatisk oversættelse af artiklen Diamant fra den svenske Wikipedia, udført af GramTrans den 2017-11-21 09:34:57. Eventuelle ændringer i den svenske original vil blive fanget igennem regelmæssige genoversættelser. Du har mulighed for at redigere oversættelsen til brug i den originale danske Wikipedia.
Usleben diamant
Uppslagsordet Diamanter fører til denne artikel. Se også Diamanter (forskellige betydninger) .

Diamant ( græsk αδάμας adamas , oøvervinderlig) er en slags kul . Til forskel fra grafit og fullerensdyr (som også består af kul) er den meget hård. Diamant er en ædelsten og på grund af sin hårdhed anvendt i industrien som skærer og slibemidler. Uslebne diamanter kaldes rådiamanter.

Indhold

  • 1 Fysiske egenskaber
  • 2 Dannelse
    • 2.1 Kunstige diamanter
    • 2.2 Laserborrade diamanter
  • 3 Anvendelsesområder
  • 4 Kvalitetssortering
    • 4.1 Farve
    • 4.2 Renhed
    • 4.3 Slibning
    • 4.4 Vægt
  • 5 Historie
  • 6 Beryktade diamanter
  • 7 Priser
  • 8 Billeder
  • 9 Referencer
  • 10 Yderligere læsning
  • 11 Eksterne links

Fysiske egenskaber

Et emnes hårdhed måles ofte i Mohs hårdhedsskala , som er baseret på ti naturligt forekommende mineraler. Her defineres mineralet talk til at have værdien 1 og diamant som det hårdeste med værdi 10. Alle andre materialer placeres på skalaen i forhold til sin evne til at ridse hinandens areal: et materiale med hårdhed 7 kan for eksempel lave rids i alle materialer med hårdhed 1 til 6.

Diamant er de hårdeste mineraler som forekommer i naturen, i dag kan man industrielt producere nogle få materialer som er hårdere. Et sådan emne er kul-60-molekyler, som tyske forskere 2005 pressede sammen under voldeligt tryk og varmede op til 2.200 grader. Dermed blev der skabt emnet ACNR (Aggreted Carbon NanoRods), som er 11% sværere at presse sammen end diamant. Der findes imidlertid andet materiale som også er hårdere end diamant men ikke baserede på kul. Et eksempel er rheniumdiborid, som blev produceret for første gang 2007 af forskere i Kalifornien og man har vist at kunne realisere rids i arealet på diamant. Emnet er imidlertid ikke lige så hårdt som ACNR. Den stabile slags kul ved de tryk som dominerer på jordens overflade er grafit. Diamant, som dannes i jordens øvre kåbe og hurtigt transporteret med vulkansk mavemor til jordens areal, bevarer dog sin krystalstruktur ved at den lave temperatur ved grundarealet forhindrer at atomstrukturen overgår til grafit. Således er diamant hvad man kalder metastabil. Til forskel fra andre ædelstene er den dog ikke ildfast, og ved 700 °C begynder den at angribes af ilten i luften og omdannes til kuldioxid. Derfor kan diamanter forsvinde sporløst efter brande.

Diamant er god varmeleder og elektrisk isolerende. En undtagelse er den blå variant, som er halvleder. Diamant har en meget høj brydningsindeks , som giver det specielle glitrende udseende.

Densiteten er 3,15-3,53 g/cm³ med en værdi på 3,52 g/cm³ for ekstremt rene diamanter. Brud-2sejheden er blevet beregnet til 3,4 MNm -3/2 [1 ] hvilket er højt for ædelstene men lavt for konstruktionsmaterialer. På grund af krystalstrukturen er diamanterne mere sprøde i nogen retninger og sejere i andre. Dette har stor betydning, når man skal afgøre hvordan man skal spalte en stor rådiamant for yderligere bearbejdning.

Krystalstrukturen er så stærk at bare kvælstof-, boer- og brintatomer er små nok at komme ind i strukturen og forårsage farveskift. Kvælstof er den mest sædvanlige forurening og er udgangspunkt ofr en gul, brun eller rosa nuance. Bor forårsager gråblå nuancer og brint røde, olivenfarvede, blå og vilette farvenuancer. Gammastråling kan give grønne nuancer, og plastisk deformation giver lyserød og røde nuancer.

Dannelse

Diamanter dannes under højt tryk og høj temperatur i jordens øvre kåbe på 150-200 kilometers dybde. Der findes hovedsagelig to typer diamanter som dannes igennem metasomatiske processer i bjergarterne peridotit og egelogien. Peridotitiske diamanter blev dannet for cirka 3,5 milliarder år siden og eklogitiske er blevet dannet i forskellige generationer som er mellem 900 millioner og 2,9 milliarder år gammelle. Diamanterne opbevares i jordens øvre kåbe i op til flere milliarder år inden de transporteres til jordens areal med vulkansk mavemor, normalt kimberlit-magma . En "perfekt" diamant som er blevet dannet langsomt består af rent kul, er farveløs, har oktaedrisk form og er meget hård. Det som er hændt er at kulatomet har bundet sig til fire andre kulatomer i form af et tetraeder omkring sig selv. [på]erne Holdes sammen ved hjælp af meget stærke bindinger. Diamantens anden grundform er kubisk og dannes hurtigere end oktaedriske diamanter. Således er kubiske diamanter ofte mere uregelmæssige og har flere mineraler- og vætskeinkluderinge som trækker dens værdi ned. Atomare forureninger af forskellige slags giver diamanter med forskellige farver, såkaldte "fancies".

Diamanter kan også skabes naturligt ved meteoritnedslag . Det pludselige tryk og den hurtige temperaturstigning som opstår ved et nedslag kan være tilstrækkeligt for at skabe mikrodiamanter og kan anvendes som en indikator på at et nedslag har sket.

Kunstige diamanter

Metoden at producere kunstige diamanter opfandtes i februar 1953 for ASEA af Erik Lundblad og hans medhjælper. De kunstige diamanter kunne produceres ved hjælp af højtryksmaskiner udviklede på ASEA inspirerede af Baltzar von Platens model. De såkaldte de syntetiske diamanter , som først og fremmest anvendes inden for industrien, bliver ofte ikke lige så store som dem naturligt dannede og har oftest en gulagtig farve eller skifter i grønt. Dog er der på senere tid blevet udviklet metoder for at producere større farveløse diamanter som kun kan adskilles fra naturlige diamanter med hjælp af meget sofistikerede analyseteknikere.

  • Kubisk zirkon (zirkonia, zirkoniumdioxid)
  • Yttriumaluminiumgranat, YAG
  • Moissanite , (mos-2iver, kiselskarbid)

Metoden med kombination af højt tryk og høj temperatur angives ofte med akronymet HPHT . I litteraturen kan man sommetider se HTHP for samme sag. HPHT er dog mest almindeligt.

En anden måde at producere diamant er igennem processen kemisk fordampning , CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition). En kulholdig gas under lavt tryk joniseres elektrisk af højspænding og trækkes af elektriske kræfter mod en diamantskive, som derved efter hånd bliver stadig tykkere. Derefter kan pladen slibes til ønsket form. 2015 havde denne metode med produceret en diamant på hel 3,09 carat (6,18 g). Klassificeringsinstituttet HRD gav karakterarket VS2 (se afsnit Renhed nedenfor), som er nær nok perfekt, men man kunne konstatere at den var syntetisk, [5 ] som sænker den økonomiske værdi betydeligt. Ikke desto mindre er den, som ved det tidspunkt var verdens største syntetiske diamant, langt fra værdiløs.

Laserborrade diamanter

Laserborede diamanter er sædvanligt forekommende i bl.a. USA, men i Sverige har branchen en helt anden med og betydeligt mere restriktivt syn på denne metode at manipulere diamanter. De diamanter som denne metode ofte anvendes på er diamanter med større tydelige indesluttelser hvor man ved hjælp af laserboring kan bore disse bort og så fuldskab igen hulrummet med en fyldning som har de samme som diamanten. ljusbrytningindeks Disse sten er dog forræderiske da for eksempel en ring som opvarmes ved størrelsesændring kan føre til at stenen slår revner. I Sverige forekommer dette salg af sten ikke over disk men risiko kan dog findes på andenhåndsmarkedet af sten som er blevet importeret fra fri import uden oprindelser. Det som i USA kaldes for "treated diamonds" er sædvanlig forekomst men accepteres ikke i Sverige uden en sådan sten klassificeres ikke ifølge GIA-regler.

Anvendelsesområder

Diamantpulver i pastaform for polering af hårde overflader

Diamanter er mest kendte som ædelstene men anvendes også i klippeøværktøjer for glas og i borindustrien som borspidser.

Et andet område er slibeskiver , som yderst er blevet forsynet med et bånd af messingen med indgydt "diamantgrus". Maskiner med sådanne slibeskiver anvendes af bl.a. optikere for kantslibning af øjenglas ved tilpasning i brillestænger af varierende form.

Kvalitetssortering

Inden for diamantbranchen kvalitetsgraderes og værdsættes diamanter efter fire forskellige egenskaber, diamantens 4C:

  • Colaer (farve)
  • Clarity (renhed)
  • Cut (slibning)
  • Carat (vægt)

De mest kendte affaldssorteringsselskaber er:

  • Gemological Institute of America, GIA
  • Hoge Raad voor Diamant, HRD
  • Confédération Internationale de la Bijouterie, CIBJO
  • International Diamond Council, IDC
  • Scandinavian Diamond Nomenclature, Scan DN

Farve

Farven bør være helt klar, ufarvet (kaldes gemenligen hvid), helst med changering i blåt (blåhvidt), som er den fineste kvalitet). Gul- og brunlige forandringer nedsætter værdien. Man plejer at gradere farven i en skala fra D til Z. Klasserna A til C anvendtes tidligere til meget definerede systemer. For at undvige misforståelser omdefineres ikke disse klasser, men opgives nu helt. I ældre litteratur kan man forstås fortsat at finde dem, men man må være på sin vagt ved tolkningen.

Wesselton er en traditionel enhel for kvalitet inddeling af farveløse, helt klare, gennemskinnende diamanter. Benævnelsen kommer af stedet Wesselton i Sydafrika, hvor en diamantmine findes. Den absolut reneste kvalitet kaldes Top Wesselton, dernæst Wesselton . Det som kommer bagefter kaldes ikke længre farveløst. Nyere graderinger har en finere inddeling, som fremgår af det følgende.

Der findes diamanter som skifter i forskellige farver. Farverne kommer af at spor af nogen grundstoffer indgår i diamanten. Helt aldeles homogent farvede er meget sjælden i naturen, storklekordnen 1 på 10.000 ufarvede, uanset størrelsen. Hver kulør kan knyttes til en vist fundsted. Det hænger sammen med slag af bjergarterne på fundstedet.

Der findes tekniske muligheder at i efterhånden bibringe en fra begyndelsen ufarvet diamant en vis tone. Når et sådan snyd opdages bliver prisfaldet stort. Naturfärgade diamanter kaldes fancy-diamanter (fantastiske, ekstrafine). De er meget sjældne, findes måske 1 på 10.000 valige, ufarvede diamanter. Prisen bliver også derefter. Om farvede partier derimod findes som indesluttelser (klumpvis) i en i det øvrige ufarvet diamant anses det for en defekt. Allerede små indesluttelser har stor virkning på prisen.

Sporstof Resultat

Bor Gråblå
Jern Brun, sort
Kvælstof Gult, brun, lyserød
Brint Rød, olivengrøn, blå, vilet

Man er ikke rigtigt sikker på hvad der gør diamanter røde. Det synes ikke bare at bero på at noget sporstof findes homogent i diamanten, men man hælder mod at der også kan bero på defekter i krystalstrukturen.

Såk. sort diamanter kaldes carbonado , er faktisk ikke homogene farvede, men er i stedet fyldte af mængder sorte forureninger ( polykrystallin), som giver der hel et sort udseende.

Gemological Institute of Americas (GIA) färggraderingsskala [6]

GIA-kode Traditionel betegnelse
D-E River (R) Meget sjælden hvidt.
Den højeste farvekvalitet
som findes på diamanter
F-G Top Wesselton (TW) Sjældent hvidt
N Wesselton (W) Hvid
I (Com) Top Crystal (TCr) Meget let tonet hvid.
J (Com) Crystal (Cr) Let tonet hvid
K (Com) - L Top Cape (TCa) Tonet hvid
M-N Cape (Ca) Let gulagtig
O-R Light Yellow (LY) Let gult
S-Z Yellow (Y) Gult

Den relative sjældenhed af forskellige naturfarver kan rangordnes i følgende serie:

Gul (mindst usædvanlig), brun, farveløs ("hvidt"), blå, grøn, sort, skærer, orange, purpur, rød (mest sjældent)

Renhed

Siden en erfaren diamantgraderer analyseret prøvegenstanden med en ||lupp]] med 10× forstørrelse klassificeres renheden efter følgende.

Klasse Svensk Kommentar
LC Loup clean Luppren
2 underklasser:
FL (Flawless) Fejlfri
IF (Internaly flawless) Ingenting indesluttet kan opdages Ydre rids kan findes
VVS (Very, very small inclusions) Yderst små indesluttelser Næsten umuligt at opdage med 10× forstørrelse
2 underklasser:
VVS1 Forenklet skrivemåder VVS1
VVS2 (ikke fuldt så godt som VVS1) VVS2
VS (Very small inclusions) Meget små indesluttelser Også en øvet bedømmer har svært at opdage mangler
2 underklasser:
VS1 VS1
VS2 VS2
(Small inclusions) Adskillige små indesluttelser Letopdagelse
2 underklasser:
SI1 SI1
SI2 SI2
I (Imperfect) Sekunda
3 underklasser:
I1 Indesluttelser ses tydeligt,
men lysbrydningen påvirkes ikke
I1
I2 Indesluttelser ses tydeligt allerede uden
lup, lysbrydningen påvirkes en anelse
I2
I3 Flere store, eller mange små indelud-
ninger, lysbrydningen tydeligvis forværret
I3

Uden lup kan alt mellem VS1 og SI2 ses omtrent lige. I-klasserne kaldes sommetider piqué (stødt):, P1, P2, P3. Inddeling i underklasser tilpasses for prøvegenstande større end 0,5 carat.

Som urenheder eller fejlagtigheder mener man indesluttelser, sprækker, blærer med mere som kan mindske værdien højst betydeligt. Også helt små klasseforskelle mellem to sammenlignelige diamanter kan give store udsleter på prisen.

Fuldslebet brillant

Slibning

Slibning af diamanten gør man for at fange og reflektere lyset på en tiltalende måde og give ædelstenen dens glitrende udseende. En facetslebet diamant kaldes brillant .

Det er meget vigtigt at få retproportioner ved brillantslibning. Når diamanten har den rigtige vinkel ved brillantslibning reflekteres lyset ud igen via taflet (bordfacetten som er den plane overside). Hvis man sliber stenen for dybder eller for fladt genreflekteres ikke det indfaldende lys uden lækker ud via underdelen af stenen.

Ring med drypformet rosensten i kloindfatning, cirka 1700.

De vigtigste slibeformer er:

  • Fuldslebede brillant , med taffel , 33 facetter på oversiden og 24 på undersiden.
  • Rosensten med facetter over hele oversiden (normalt 24 stykker) og plan underside.
  • Carré- og baguetteslibning, dvs. kvadratiske eller rektangulære briljanter med langstrakte facetter langs kanterne; også med brudte hjørner (smaragdslibning).

I USA, Rusland og det øvrige Europa har disse områder deres traditionelle proportioner på briljanter. Israel-briljanter kan dog have noget afvigende proportioner.

Kvaliteten på slibningen gives karakterark efter følgende 5 klasser:

Fremragende, bedste mulige. Få eller ubetydelige mærker
Very good Meget god brillans, få ydre mærker
Good Gennemsnitslig brillans, nogle store ydre mærker
Fair Passabel. Mindsket brillans, flere større, eller mange små ydre mærker
Poor Dårlig. Brillans betydeligt mindsket, store ydre mærker

Hvis en enkelt skade ligger nær en kant på en brillant, kan den sommetider skjules under en fatningsklo i et smykke.

Vægt

Vægten på en diamant nævnes i carat . 1 carat er 200 milligram; den kan deles i 100 point. 1 point er altså = 2 mg.

Historie

Diamanter blev udvundet for så vidt er kendte for første gang i Indien for over 4.000 år siden. Det var dog først i 1456 , da Louis de Berqueur opdagede hvordan diamanter kunne slibes, som interessen vågnede for denne sten. Frem til 1700-tallet var det i princippet bare i Indien diamanter blev udvundet, nærmere har bestemt i minerne i Golconda . 1726 blev gjort siden fund af diamanter i Brasilien .

Hope-diamanten

Den moderne diamantindustri og diamantslipningindustrien blev født igennem fundene af diamanter i Hopetown, syd for Kimberley i Sydafrika i 1867 . Et af virksomhederne fra diamantrushet i Sydafrika, De Beers , er i dag den dominerende virksomhed på markedet, med en stilling så stærk at man på egen hånd kan påvirke prisen på rådiamanter, som har sket igennem Londonsyndikatet eller senere Central Selling Organisation (CSO). Større omfang har bearbejdningsindustrien/diamantslipningindustrien blandt andet i Nederlandene , USA , Israel og Indien.

To tredjedele af alle diamanter i verden kommer fra miner i Afrika, oftest fra Angola , Botswana , den Centralafrikanske republik , Kongo-Kinshasa , Namibia , Sierra Leone og Sydafrika . På senere tid er diamanter af god kvalitet blevet fundet i Kanada , Rusland Sibirien og også i Australien Argyle (1970) findes der diamanter. Man har også fundet diamanter i små mængder i Sverige , for eksempel på Alnön og i Lapland .

Beryktade diamanter

  • Cullinandiamanten
  • Hope
  • Koh-i-noor

Priser

I november 2013 blev diamanten solgt Pink Star for 83,2 millioner dollars, over 540 millioner kroner, på en auktion i Genève. Det gør den til verdens hidtil dyreste diamant. Den tidligere rekord blev haft af en anden rosa diamant som blev solgt for 320 millioner kroner 2010.

Billeder

a) 5 sammenvoksede diamantkrystaller fra Kongo-Kinshasa . To er glansløse kubusser, som trænger ind i hinanden i to gule nuancer; den store krystal som glitrer i gult er en kubisk oktaheder, og de sidsterne to glinsende nejlikbrune ser ud som afstumpede oktaedrer.

Original-etiketten

b) Proveniens . Denne sten er en af de få man har kunnet datere og spore til fundstedet, Kimberleyminen . Næsten helt sikkert er den fra det tidlige 1800-tal, eller der omkring. Den blev tilført Smithsonian-samlingen før Første Verdenskrig og blev solgt til Walt Lidstrom i 1960'erne. Stenen stoppede i familiens samling af såk. thumbnail- og tånegldiamanter - lignelsen sigter på størrelsen - helt frem til længe efter Lidstroms død. Den blev senere solgt til Bill Pinch , som forstod desto videnskabelig og historisk værdi, da han tilegnede den sig, thi stenen var forsynet med originaletiket ved siden af dokumentation, som viste at den kom lige netop fra selve Kimberley-minen og ikke fra nogen af Kimberley-selskabets mange andre, senere tilkommne miner.

c) Napoleon I gav dette diamanthalsbånd til kejserinden Marie Louise for at fejre fødslen af den søn, som sidenhen blev "kongen af Rom'"

d) Brylluppet mellem Kronprinsessan Victoria og Daniel Wrestling 2010. Mange diamanter og andre ædle sten i de svenske kronjuveler . Over højre skulder ( heraldisk sinister) det lyseblåe Serafimerordenbånd .

er) I USA taget i beslaglæggelse fra en pengebedrager. Förverkad til staten og solgt på eksekutiv auktion i 2007 med udråbsprisen USD 900.000

f) Fra Kimberley-minen 1878. Oprindeligt 287,42 carat, nerslipet til 128,54 carat med 82 facetter

g) Findes i Museum Reich der Kristalle i München . Originalen har dog flere facetter, og farven er ikke lige så intensivt blå, som i kopien

h) Finns i Museum Reich der Kristalle i München

j) Fra den udstykkede Cullinandiamant , som fra begyndelsen var 530,2 carat. Kopien findes i Museum Reich der Kristalle i München. Originalen indgår blandt de britiske kronjuveler.

k) Tilhører de iranske rigsregalier . Opbevares i Teheran

Referencer

  1. ^ J. E. Field; C. J. Freeman (3 mars 1981). "Strength and fracture properties of diamond". Philosophical Magazine A. sid. 595-618. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01418618108240397#.VEPGk_l_vuI. Läst 7 december 2008.
  2. ^ http://www.tekniskamuseet.se/1/1937.html
  3. ^ http://www.dn.se/nyheter/vetenskap/odlade-diamanter-utmanar-akta
  4. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/1999/diamonds_first.shtml
  5. ^ Björn Lindahl : Diamantkrige truer at bryde ud, Svenska Dagbladet , Erhvervsliv, 2016-01-18, side 05
  6. ^ [ a b ]"Origin of the Diamond 4Cs". GIA. Arkiverad från originalet den 30 juni 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150630200723/http://www.4cs.gia.edu/en-us/the-diamond-4-cs.htm. Läst 28 juni 2015.
  7. ^ Hedéns Guld [1]

Yderligere læsning

  • Lundblad, Erik G. (1989). "Diamanter: utvecklingen vid ASEA 1953-1965". Dædalus (Stockholm) 1989/90(58),: sid. 118-137 : ill.. ISSN 0070-2528. ISSN 0070-2528 ISSN 0070-2528. Libris 2834567
  • Lundblad, Erik G. (1988). "Om konsten att göra diamanter". Dædalus (Stockholm) 1988(57),: sid. 60-76 : ill.. ISSN 0070-2528. ISSN 0070-2528 ISSN 0070-2528. Libris 2834210

Eksterne links

  • Commons-logo.svgWikimedia Commons har media som rör Diamant.
  • 50+books, 5000 pages (e-texts) on Diamanten Robert Boyle, Albertus Magnus, US Geological Survey, George Frederick Kunz etc.
  • Et svensk websted som forklarer hvordan gradering af diamanter sker.



Nedenstående er den originale artikel Diamant fra den danske Wikipedia, hentet af GramTrans den 2015-05-03 06:01:52. Eventuelle ændringer i den danske original vil blive fanget igennem regelmæssige opdateringer.
Disambig bordered fade.svg Denne artikel omhandler mineralet Diamant. Opslagsordet har også anden betydning, se diamant (værktøj).
Brillantslebne diamanter.

Diamant (græsk: adámās, dansk: ~ ubetvingelig) er et gennemsigtigt mineral bestående af kulstof. Diamant er det hårdeste kendte mineral (10 på Mohs' hårdhedsskala) og kan derfor kun slibes med diamantstøv.

Som ædelsten har diamanter høj værdi og bruges til smykker. Diamanten vurderes ud fra det, der på engelsk kaldes de 4 C'er, nemlig:

Carat: Karat. En karat er 0,20 gram, og målet stammer fra kernen i frugten fra Johannesbrød. I gamle dage anvendtes kernerne som vægtenhed for diamanter. De fleste diamanter er ret små (1 karat eller mindre), men i sjældne tilfælde kan man opleve endog meget store diamanter

Clarity: Klarhed. Næsten alle diamanter indeholder små partikler, som er kommet ind i diamanten, da den blev skabt af naturen. Jo mindre antal partikler, der er i en diamant og jo mindre de er, jo højere er prisen. Det skyldes, at partiklerne dels kan begrænse den måde som diamanten kan slibes på dels, at partiklerne kan ødelægge lysgennemstrømningen i diamanten, så den bliver "grå" og kedelig at se på.

Colour: Farve. Diamanter findes i alle farver, men langt de fleste er svagt gullige eller brunlige. De helt klare diamanter er mere sjældne og derfor også mere kostbare. Fancy diamonds er diamanter, som har en helt speciel farve som blå, rød eller pink. De er ekstremt sjældne og meget kostbare. Mange af de kostbareste og mest kendte diamanter i verden er fancy diamonds.

Cut: Slibning: Uden slibning er diamanten en kedelig sten. Det er slibningen, som bringer skønheden frem i diamanten. Derfor har slibningen afgørende indflydelse på diamantens værdi.

Men de fleste diamanter er små eller urene og anvendes i industrien som skære- eller boremateriale.

Diamanter er dannet i over 150 kilometers dybde under et enormt tryk og er gennem diatremer (kraterrør) blevet ført op til jordskorpen. Diamanterne findes i bjergarten kimberlit.

En stor del af verdens diamanter kommer fra Sydafrika og Congo, Sibirien, Indien og Brasilien.

En brillant er en rundsleben diamant med et stort antal facetter. Diamanter brænder ved temperaturer over 710 °C i en iltrig atmosfære.

Indhold

    Kendte diamanter

    • Koh-i-Noor
    • Hope-diamanten
    • Commons-logo.svg Wikimedia Commons har flere filer relateret til Diamant
    Naturvidenskab Stub
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    83.5 47.69 colorless
    South Africa
    also known as the Dudley Diamond. This must not be confused with the Star of Africa. The Star of South Africa was the initial name given to this diamond, when it was purchased as an 83.5-carat (16.70 g) rough diamond. The diamond is a D-color, pear-shaped stellar brilliant cut stone, weighing 47.69 carats (9.538 g).
    Star of the Season 100.10 colorless
    -
    a 100.10-carat (20.020 g) pear-shaped D-color, Internally Flawless stone. At $16,548,750 US it held the world record for the highest price paid for a diamond at auction until the sale of the Wittelsbach-Graff diamond in 2008.
    Star of the South 128.48 light pinkish-brown
    Brazil
    Found in Brazil in 1853. Cartier is the last known owners of the diamond (mid-2000s).
    Star of the South copy.jpg
    Star of the South (replica)
    Strawn-Wagner Diamond 3.03 1.09 colorless
    United States of America
    A diamond which received a "perfect" 0/0/0 rating from the American Gem Society, weighing 3.03 carats (0.606 g) rough and 1.09 carats (0.218 g) cut. On exhibit at Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas, where it was found in 1990. Stuart or Holland Diamond 39.75 light blue-green Pear shaped rose cut diamond. Bought in 1690 as a rough stone by Queen Mary II Stuart, wife of King William of Orange. Therefor also referred to as the Holland diamond. Belongs to the Dutch Royal House. Sweet Josephine Diamond 16.08 fancy vivid pink x\Mx\Mt cushion-shaped stone classified in the elite “fancy vivid” category to ever come to auction. Owned by an American family of 15 years, it was sold at auction in November 2015 to Hong Kong billionaire Joseph Lau, and renamed by him the 'Sweet Josephine' after his daughter.[31] The next day he bought the 'Blue Moon of Josephine' diamond for her.[32] Taylor-Burton Diamond 68 colorless
    South Africa
    Purchased by Richard Burton for his wife Elizabeth Taylor, weighing 68 carats (13.6 g). ChChCL tiffany diamanter List of diamonds - Wikipedia jwunbxtv

    List of diamonds - Wikipedia tiffany diamanter

    List of diamonds

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search

    A number of large or extraordinary diamonds have gained fame, both as exquisite examples of the beautiful nature of diamonds and because of the famous people who wore, bought, and sold them. A partial list of famous diamonds in history follows.

    Name Uncut
    weight
    (carat)
    Cut
    weight
    (carat)
    Color Country/region of origin Description Image
    26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union[1][2] 342.57 yellow
    Russia / USSR
    Mined at the Mir kimberlitic pipe (Yakutia, Russia) in 1980. It is the largest gem diamond ever found in Russia or the former USSR. It is the size of a pigeon's egg and is currently kept (as of 2016) in the Russian Diamond Fund (Moscow Kremlin.)
    Akbar Shah 116, later 71.7 colorless
    India
    An Indian diamond which became famous during the days of the Mughal Empire. A diamond with a roughly pear-shaped outline and random faceting, including two Persian inscriptions, the first reading "Shah Akbar, the Grand King, 1028 A.H." (the letters mean Anno Hegirae). The second inscription read "To the Lord of Two Worlds, 1039 A.H. Shah Jehan". The diamond was reportedly part of the original Peacock Throne. Purchased in 1886 in Istanbul by London merchant George Blogg, who re-cut it from 116 carats (23.2 g) to a pear-shape of 71.70 carats (14.340 g), thus destroying the historic inscriptions. Blogg sold the stone in 1887 to Malhar Rao Gaekwad of Baroda, India who was the last known owner and the stone's whereabouts are presently unknown.
    Alexander Pushkin[1][2] 320.65 colorless
    Russia / USSR
    Mined at the Udachnaya kimberlitic pipe (Yakutia, Russia) in 1989. It is the second largest gem diamond ever found in Russia or the former USSR and is currently kept (as of 2016) in the Russian Diamond Fund (Moscow Kremlin.)
    Allnatt Diamond 101.29 yellow
    South Africa (disputed)
    A 101.29-carat (20.258 g) antique cushion-shaped brilliant fancy vivid yellow diamond which is believed to have been found in the Premier mine in the South African Republic. It got the name Allnatt[3] after one of its owners, Major Alfred Ernest Allnatt. The diamond was sold for a little more than $3 million at Christie's auction in Geneva in May 1996.
    De Allnatt diamant.jpg
    Allnatt Diamond
    Amarillo Starlight 16.37 7.54 colorless
    United States of America
    The largest diamond found by a park visitor in the Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas since 1972, when it was established as a state park. It was found by W. W. Johnson of Amarillo, Texas in 1975 and was a 16.37 carats (3.27 g) white diamond, but it has since been cut into a 7.54 carats (1,510 mg) marquise shape.
    Amsterdam Diamond 33.74 black
    Africa
    A 33.74 carat (6.748 g) pear-shaped black diamond which sold for $352,000 in 2001.
    Archduke Joseph 78.54 76.02 colorless
    India
    Historical cushion-shaped, D colour, internally flawless Golconda diamond, sold on 13 November 2012 by Christies to an anonymous buyer for US$21.4M.[4]
    Argyle Pink Jubilee 12.76 8.01 pink
    Australia
    Argyle Pink Jubilee[5] is the largest pink diamond ever found in Australia weighing 12.76 carats. The diamond was found in Western Australia in Argyle Mine who is the largest producer of pink diamonds in the world.
    Ashberg Diamond 102.48 amber
    South Africa
    102.48 carats (20.496 g)
    Aurora Butterfly of Peace A display of 240 fancy-colored diamonds.
    Aurora Butterfly of Peace in daylight 01.jpg
    The 240 diamonds
    Aurora Pyramid of Hope A display of 296 diamonds of natural colors.
    Aurora Diamond Collection.jpg
    The 296 diamonds
    Beau Sancy 34.98 colorless
    India
    A 34.98-carat (6.996 g)[6] pear-shaped diamond, which sold for US $10 million in 2012.[7] Not to be confused with the Sancy.
    Beau-sancy.jpg
    Beau Sancy
    Black Orlov 67.5 black
    India
    a 67.50-carat (13.500 g) cushion-cut black diamond, also called the Eye of Brahma Diamond.
    Blue Moon of Josephine Diamond 29.6 12.03 blue
    South Africa
    Found in the Cullinan mine in 2014, cushion-shaped, and originally named the 'Blue Moon' diamond. Purchased for a record breaking 48.6 million Swiss francs (US48.4 million) at a Sotheby's auction in Geneva on 11 November 2015 by the Hong Kong tycoon Joseph Lau. He renamed it "The Blue Moon of Josephine" in honor of his daughter. The previous day he had bought the 'Sweet Josephine' diamond for her.[8][9]
    Briolette of India 90.38 colorless
    India
    (See article)
    90.38 carats (18.076 g) - Cut by Cartier around 1910.
    Centenary Diamond 599 273.85 colorless
    South Africa
    273.85 carats (54.770 g), modified heart-shaped brilliant, the world's largest colorless (grade D), flawless diamond.
    Chloe Diamond 84.37 colorless
    Angola
    Sold in November 2007 at Sotheby's in Geneva to Georges Marciano of the Guess clothing line for 18.2 million SFr, the second-highest price ever paid for a diamond on auction.[10]
    Cora Sun-Drop Diamond 110.03 yellow
    South Africa
    Largest known pear-shape fancy vivid yellow diamond, found in South-Africa[11][12]
    Creator[1][2] 298.48 colored
    Russia
    Found in a placer mining factory in the Lower Lena River area, Yakutia, in 2004. It is the third largest gem diamond ever found in Russia or the former USSR and is currently kept (as of 2016) in the Russian Diamond Fund (Moscow Kremlin.)
    Cross of Asia 280 79.12 yellow
    South Africa
    Discovered in 1902 at the Jagersfontein Mine as a 280-carat (56 g) crystal. The first cut was to 142 carats (28.4 g); it was then cut three more times until, in 1993, it was a 79.12 carats (15.824 g) radiant-cut with table facets that resemble a Maltese cross.[13]
    Cullinan Diamond 3106.75 various colorless
    South Africa
    Discovered in 1905, the Cullinan is, at 3106.75 carats (621.35 g), the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found. It was cut into 105 diamonds including the Cullinan I or the Great Star of Africa, 530.2 carats (106.04 g), and the Cullinan II or the Lesser Star of Africa, 317.4 carats (63.48 g), both of which are now part of the British Crown Jewels.
    Cullinan Diamond and some of its cuts - copy.jpg
    Nine of the diamonds
    Cullinan I 3106.75 530.4 colorless
    South Africa
    The largest stone obtained from Cullinan diamond.[14] Cullinan I or Great Star of Africa with weight of 530.4 carats it is the second largest cut diamond in the world. Currently located in the head of the Sceptre of the British Crown Jewels British Royal family.
    Rough cullinan diamond.jpg
    Cullinan II 3106.75 317.4 colorless
    South Africa
    The second largest stone obtained from Cullinan diamond. Cullinan II[15] or Lesser Star of Africa with weight of 317.4 carats is also one of the largest cut diamonds in the world. As Cullinan I, it is also in the British crown jewels located in the Imperial State Crown British Royal family.
    Daria-i-Noor 182 pink
    India
    The largest pink diamond in the world, approximately 182 carats (36.4 g), originally from India but now part of Iranian Crown Jewels. Its exact weight is not known; 182 carats (36.4 g) is an estimate.
    Darya-e Noor Diamond of Iran.png
    The Daria-i-Noor
    Deepdene 104.52 yellow
    South Africa
    Widely considered to be the largest artificially irradiated diamond in the world, at 104.52 carats (20.904 g).
    DeYoung Red Diamond 5.03 brownish-red
    South Africa
    Weighing 5.03 carats (1.006 g), the fourth-largest known red diamond GIA graded as the FANCY DARK REDDISH BROWN, was bought in a flea market on a hatpin by Sidney deYoung a prominent Boston estate jewelry merchant. It was donated by him to the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History.
    DeYoung Red Diamond 01.jpg
    Dresden Green Diamond 41 green
    India
    41-carat (8.2 g) antique pear-shaped brilliant - its color is the result of natural irradiation
    Dresden Grün Diamant copy.jpg
    Dresden Green (glass replica)
    Earth Star Diamond 111.59 brown
    South Africa
    a 111.59-carat (22.318 g) pear-shaped diamond with a strong coffee-like brown color.
    Eureka Diamond 21.25 10.73 yellow-brown
    South Africa
    the first diamond found in South Africa, a yellow-brown 21.25-carat (4.250 g) stone (before cutting) resulting in a finished diamond 10.73 carats (2.146 g)
    Empress Eugénie (diamond) 52
    Brazil
    52-carat (10.4 g) antique pear-shaped brilliant with an odd, random facet pattern
    Esperanza Diamond 8.52 4.602 D IF
    United States of America
    Discovered in 2015, it is the 5th largest diamond ever discovered at the Crater of Diamonds State Park, Arkansas Identified as a Type IIa crystal, the 8.52 carat diamond was cut and polished by Mike Botha into a custom-designed 4.605 carat Triolette shape during a week long event in North Little Rock and was graded a D IF, 0 Polish & 0 Symmetry by the American Gem Society Laboratories- making it the most valuable American diamond.
    Esperanza Diamond Triolette.jpg
    Esperanza Diamond
    Excelsior Diamond 970 various colorless
    South Africa
    The largest known diamond in the world prior to the Cullinan at 970 carats (194 g), it was later cut into 10 pieces of various sizes (13–68 carats)
    Florentine Diamond 137.27 yellow
    India
    A lost diamond, light yellow with a weight of 137.27 carats (27.45 g).
    Florentine Diamond copy.jpg
    Florentine Diamond (glass replica)
    French Blue (or Tavernier Blue before its cut) ≈112 69 blue
    India
    (Lost during French Revolution) Largest blue diamond allegedly discovered up to this date before its cut, it was faceted by Jean Pittan to be the main French Crown Jewel. Lost, and then almost certainly cut into the Hope Diamond.
    Golden Eye Diamond 43.51 yellow
    South Africa
    A large, radiant-cut fancy intense yellow diamond (43.5 carats).
    Golden Jubilee Diamond 755.5 545.67 yellow-brown
    South Africa
    The Unnamed Brown as originally named, the Golden Jubilee[16] is the largest faceted diamond ever cut at 545.67 carats (109.13 g), outweighing Cullinan I by 15.27 carats
    Graff Pink 24.78 pink
    India
    24.78-carat (4.956 g) A 24.78-carat Fancy Intense Pink diamond and, until the sale of the Sweet Josephine diamond in November 2015, it was the most expensive jewel ever sold at auction. Previously owned by Harry Winston and an unnamed private collector, and bought by Laurence Graff (November 2010).[17]
    Great Chrysanthemum Diamond 104.15 orange-brown
    South Africa
    104.15 carats (20.830 g)
    Great Mogul Diamond ≈780 280
    India
    Fabled 280-carat (56 g) mogul-cut diamond, now lost, although presumed by historians to have been re-cut as the Orlov.
    Great Mogul Diamond copy.jpg
    Great Mogul Diamond (replica)
    Gruosi Diamond 115.34 black
    India
    A heart-shaped black diamond, weighing 115.34 carats (23.068 g).
    Heart of Eternity Diamond 27.64 blue
    South Africa
    Perhaps the largest fancy vivid blue, weighing 27.64 carats (5.528 g).
    Hope Diamond ≈112 45.52 blue
    India
    45.52 carats (9.104 g), is a Fancy Dark Grayish-Blue diamond and supposedly cursed. Almost certainly cut from the French Blue Diamond. Part of the Smithsonian Collection.
    HopeDiamond (1).JPG
    The Hope Diamond
    Hortensia Diamond 20 peach
    India
    Peach (slightly orangey pink) color, formerly part of the French Crown Jewels. Displayed in the Louvre.
    Incomparable Diamond 890 407.48 brownish-yellow
    Democratic Republic of Congo
    A brownish-yellow diamond of 407.48 carats (81.496 g) cut from an 890 carat (178 g) rough diamond of the same name - it appeared on eBay in 2002. Internally Flawless clarity. Several other smaller diamonds were also cut from the crystal.
    Jacob Diamond 184.5 colorless
    India
    Cushion cut weighing 184.5 carats (36.90 g) also known as Imperial Diamond & Victoria Diamond.
    The Jane Seymour 2.08 blue
    Russia
    Cushion cut weighing 2.08 carats (416 mg)
    Jones Diamond 34.48 blueish-white
    United States of America
    Weighing 34.48 carats (6.896 g), found in West Virginia by the Jones family. Also known as the Punch Jones Diamond.
    Jubilee Diamond 245.3 colorless
    South Africa
    Originally known as the Reitz Diamond; perhaps the sixth-largest in the world at 245.35 carats (49.070 g).
    Lesedi La Rona 1111 colorless
    Botswana
    Found in Botswana in 2015, at 222 g this is the second-largest gem-quality diamond ever found.
    Kazanjian Red Diamond 35 5.05 brownish-red
    South Africa
    A 5.05-carat (1.010 g) Emerald-cut red diamond formerly known simply as "Red Diamond". This is the third largest known Red diamond. It was cut from a 35-carat (7.0 g) piece of boart discovered near Lichtenburg, South Africa. It reappeared in 2007 after a 37-year absence from sight, and was purchased by Kazanjian Brothers Inc.
    Koh-i-Noor 793 105.6 colorless
    India
    A 105.6 carat (21.6 g) white of Indian origin, with a long and turbulent history and a good deal of legend surrounding it. After belonging to Kakatiya Kings and then to various Delhi Sultante and Persian rulers, it was gifted (some claim forcefully) by the Maharaja Duleep Singh of Lahore to Queen Victoria during the British Raj, and is now part of the Crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother.
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    Koh-i-noor (replica)
    Koi Diamond 32+ white, orange and various
    -
    The colors of this sole and unique 32+ carat diamond evokes the well-known Koi fish legend and sacred symbolism cherished by East Asians. The graduations of color of white, orange, light yellow, darkblue and black colors in this diamond are reminiscent of ancient Chinese brush painting. The Koi Diamond has been certified by the GIA (Gemological Institute Of America).
    KOI diamond.jpg
    The Koi Diamond
    Lesotho Brown 601 various pale brown
    Lesotho
    Was a stone originally 601 carats (120.2 g) with the largest stone 71.73 carats (14.346 g) after cutting.
    Lesotho Promise 603 75 colorless
    Lesotho
    Is the 15th-largest diamond, the tenth-largest white diamond, and the largest diamond to be found in 13 years. The original stone was 603 carats (120.6 g), although the largest diamond after the cutting was 75 carats (15.0 g).
    Martian Pink 12.04 pink
    South Africa
    Named by American jeweler Ronald Winston in 1976. Sold by auction in May 2012 for US $17 million, "the largest round fancy intense pink diamond to ever go under the hammer", according to Christie's.[18][19][20]
    Millennium Star 777 203.04 colorless
    Democratic Republic of Congo
    at 203.04 carats (40.608 g) is the second-largest colorless (grade D), flawless diamond.
    Moon of Baroda 24.04 yellow
    India
    Moon of Baroda[21] is pear-shape 24.04 carats (4.808 g) diamond and it was discovered in Vadodara (Baroda) in India.
    Moussaieff Red Diamond 13 5.11 red
    Brazil
    the second largest known Red diamond, at 5.11 carats (1.022 g).
    Nassak Diamond 43.38 blue-white
    India
    An emerald-cut of 43.38 carats (8.676 g), previously a triangular brilliant of about 80 carats.
    Nizam Diamond 340 colorless
    India
    Reportedly 340 carats (68 g). Possibly a large colorless topaz. Whereabouts unknown.
    Noor-ol-Ain Diamond 60 pink
    India
    Around 60 carats (12 g) originally from India but now part of the Iranian crown jewels.
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    Noor-ol-Ain
    Ocean Dream Diamond 5.51 blue-green
    Central Africa
    The only known natural Fancy Deep Blue-Green, and weighs 5.51 carats (1.102 g).
    Oppenheimer Blue 14.62 blue
    South Africa
    At the time of its sale in May 2016, it became the most expensive diamond in the world, selling for $50.6m (£34.7m).
    Oppenheimer Diamond 253.7 yellow
    South Africa
    One of the largest gem-quality uncut diamonds in the world, at 253.7 carats (50.74 g).
    Oppenheimer Diamond.jpg
    Oppenheimer Diamond
    Orlov 190 colorless
    India
    An Indian mogul cut rumored to have served as the eye of a Hindu statue, and currently is part of the Kremlin diamond fund, weighing approximately 190 carats (38 g).
    Orlow (Diamant).jpg
    Orlov
    Paragon 137.82 colorless
    Brazil
    A shield-shaped diamond of 137.82 carats.[22]
    Pigot Diamond 100 (est.) 47.38 colorless
    India
    A oval brilliant, once the largest diamond in England. Sold by lottery in 1801, auctioned by Christie's in 1802, current whereabouts unknown although a popular legend is that it was destroyed.
    Pink Star 132.50 59.60 pink
    Africa
    Modified oval brilliant cut (step cut crown, brilliant pavilion), largest known fancy vivid pink, at 59.60 carats (11.920 g). Formerly known as the Steinmetz Pink, and the Pink Star.[23] Auctioned in Geneva by Sotheby's in 2013 for $83.187 million[24]
    Polar Star Diamond 41.28 colorless
    -
    A colorless cushion-shaped stellar brilliant diamond weighing 41.28 carats (8.256 g).
    Portuguese Diamond 127.01 pale yellow
    Brazil
    127-carat (25.4 g) antique emerald cut with a pale yellow body color and very strong blue fluorescence. Part of the Smithsonian's collection.
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    Portugueses Diamond
    Premier Rose Diamond 137.0 colorless
    South Africa
    137.02-carat (27.4 g) stone cut from a 353.9-carat (70.8 g) rough gem of the same name.
    Princie Diamond . 34.65 pink
    India
    Antique cushion-cut, fancy intense pink, natural color, VS2 clarity, type IIa, displays bright orangey-red fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light (G.I.A.'s lab data);[25][26] discovered 300 years ago in the Golconda mines[27]
    Pumpkin Diamond 5.54 orange
    Central African Republic
    Perhaps the largest fancy vivid orange diamond (5.54 carats), modified cushion-shaped brilliant.
    Raven Diamond 12.78 black
    -
    Trilliant cut black diamond purchased in 2011. The Raven is currently in a private collection in upstate NY.
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    Raven Diamond