the sims 2 tiffany xo ring

    tiffany osta verkossa-main breadcrumb">

  • tiffany xo ring

    tiffany ja co outlet
    anel de casamento tiffany
    ティファニービーズブレスレット
    • «
    • 15
    • 16
    • 17
    • 18
    • 19
    • »
    1. Estimating the change in asymptotic direction due to secular changes in the geomagnetic field

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Flueckiger, E. O.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Gentile, L. C.; Bathurat, A. A.

      1985-01-01

      The concept of geomagnetic optics, as described by the asymptotic directions of approach, is extremely useful in the analysis of cosmic radiation data. However, when changes in cutoff occur as a result of evolution in the geomagnetic field, there are corresponding changes in the asymptotic cones of acceptance. A method is introduced of estimating the change in the asymptotic direction of approach for vertically incident cosmic ray particles from a reference set of directions at a specific epoch by considering the change in the geomagnetic cutoff.

    2. Estimated variability of real-ear insertion response (REIR) due to loudspeaker type and placement.

      PubMed

      Stone, Michael A; Moore, Brian C

      2004-05-01

      The real-ear insertion response (REIR) of a hearing aid is estimated as the difference between the aided response and the unaided response in the ear canal. Changes in the position of the loudspeaker relative to the head, between the two measurements, may reduce the accuracy of the estimate. The spatial variability of the sound field at distances close to the loudspeaker is less for a 'flat-panel' loudspeaker than for a conventional cone loudspeaker; the panel might thus lead to a reduced influence of loud-speaker position. To assess this, we measured the real-ear unaided response (REUR) as each of three loudspeakers (two cone type and one panel) was moved in a three-dimensional space centred at either 0 degrees or 45 degrees azimuth, at a distance of 50cm from a KEMAR manikin. Contrary to our expectation, the variability of the REUR was larger for the panel than for the cone loudspeakers The REUR varied less with position for the 0 degrees than for the 45 degrees azimuth. The variability of the REUR decreased with increasing distance of the loudspeaker from KEMAR. We tentatively suggest that loudspeaker-to-client distances of 40-50 cm should be used and that a 0 degrees azimuth is preferable.

    3. Model estimates of sea-level change due to anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water storage

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Yamada, Tomohito J.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

      2012-06-01

      Global sea level has been rising over the past half century, according to tide-gauge data. Thermal expansion of oceans, melting of glaciers and loss of the ice masses in Greenland and Antarctica are commonly considered as the largest contributors, but these contributions do not entirely explain the observed sea-level rise. Changes in terrestrial water storage are also likely to affect sea level, but comprehensive and reliable estimates of this contribution, particularly through human water use, are scarce. Here, we estimate sea-level change in response to human impacts on terrestrial water storage by using an integrated model that simulates global terrestrial water stocks and flows (exclusive to Greenland and Antarctica) and especially accounts for human activities such as reservoir operation and irrigation. We find that, together, unsustainable groundwater use, artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in terrestrial water storage and the loss of water from closed basins have contributed a sea-level rise of about 0.77mmyr-1 between 1961 and 2003, about 42% of the observed sea-level rise. We note that, of these components, the unsustainable use of groundwater represents the largest contribution.

    4. Detection of incoherent joint state due to inaccurate bone motion estimation.

      PubMed

      Schwartz, Cédric; Leboeuf, Fabien; Rémy-Néris, Olivier; Brochard, Sylvain; Lempereur, Mathieu; Burdin, Valérie

      2013-01-01

      In biomechanical modelling and motion analysis, the use of personalised data such as bone geometry would provide more accurate and reliable results. However, there are still a limited number of tools used to measure the evolution of articular interactions. This paper proposes a coherence index to describe the articular status of contact surfaces during motion. The index relies on a robust estimation of the evolution of surfacic interactions between the joint surfaces. The index is first compared to distance maps on simulated motions. It is then used to compare two motion capture protocols (two different localisations of the markers for scapula tracking). The results show that the index detects progressive modifications in the joint and allows distinguishing the two protocols, in accordance with the literature. In the future, the index could, among other things, be used to compare/improve biomechanical models and motion analysis protocols.

    5. Estimating Errors in Satellite Retrievals of Bio-Optical Properties due to Incorrect Aerosol Model Selection

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2011-01-01

      as Martha’s Vineyard or Venice. This is due to a large amount of cloud coverage during the year, as well as the AERONET-OC station being unavailable...can be used to produce a good result for nLw(412) for day 176. This is an instance where the MODIS image has sporadic cloud coverage, as well as haze...1989). [10] Gordon, H. R., Brown, J. W. and Evans, R. H., "Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus -7 Coastal Zone Color

    6. Quantification and Radiological Risk Estimation Due to the Presence of Natural Radionuclides in Maiganga Coal, Nigeria

      PubMed Central

      Kolo, Matthew Tikpangi; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah Binti

      2016-01-01

      Following the increasing demand of coal for power generation, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides were determined in Nigerian coal using the gamma spectrometric technique with the aim of evaluating the radiological implications of coal utilization and exploitation in the country. Mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 8.18±0.3, 6.97±0.3, and 27.38±0.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values were compared with those of similar studies reported in literature. The mean estimated radium equivalent activity was 20.26 Bq kg-1 with corresponding average external hazard index of 0.05. Internal hazard index and representative gamma index recorded mean values of 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. These values were lower than their respective precautionary limits set by UNSCEAR. Average excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated to be 0.04×10−3, which was insignificant compared with 0.05 prescribed by ICRP for low level radiation. Pearson correlation matrix showed significant positive relationship between 226Ra and 232Th, and with other estimated hazard parameters. Cumulative mean occupational dose received by coal workers via the three exposure routes was 7.69 ×10−3 mSv y-1, with inhalation pathway accounting for about 98%. All radiological hazard indices evaluated showed values within limits of safety. There is, therefore, no likelihood of any immediate radiological health hazards to coal workers, final users, and the environment from the exploitation and utilization of Maiganga coal. PMID:27348624

    7. HIV and related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Iran: bias-adjusted estimates from the 2010 National Bio-Behavoral Survey.

      PubMed

      Mirzazadeh, Ali; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Navadeh, Soodabeh; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; McFarland, Willi; Mohammad, Kazem

      2014-01-01

      In a national, facility-based survey of female sex workers in 14 cities of Iran (N = 872), HIV prevalence was measured at 4.5 % (95 % CI, 2.4-8.3) overall and at 11.2 % (95 % CI, 3.4-18.9) for FSW with a history of injection drug use. Using methods to correct for biases in reporting sensitive information, the estimate of unprotected sex in last act was 35.8 %, ever injecting drugs was 37.6 %, sexually transmitted disease symptoms was 82.1 %, and not testing for HIV in the last year was 64.0 %. The amount of bias correction ranged from <1 to >30 %, in parallel with the level of stigma associated with each behavior. Considering the current upward trajectory of HIV infection in the Middle East and North Africa region, as well as the ongoing high level of risky behaviors and considerable underreporting of many such behaviors in surveys, bias corrections may be needed, especially in the context of Iran, to obtain more accurate information to guide prevention and care responses to stop the growing HIV epidemic in this vulnerable group of women.

    8. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

      SciTech Connect

      Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

      2014-11-28

      In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006–3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires “filling up” all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

    9. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

      2014-11-01

      In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006-3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires "filling up" all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

    10. Non-linear corrections to the cosmological matter power spectrum and scale-dependent galaxy bias: implications for parameter estimation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

      2008-07-01

      We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency.

    11. Electrical Effect in Silver-Point Realization Due to Cell Structure and Bias Voltage Based on Resistance Measurement Using AC and DC Bridges

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Widiatmo, J. V.; Harada, K.; Yamazawa, K.; Tamba, J.; Arai, M.

      2015-08-01

      Electrical effects related to insulating leakage represent one of the major factors contributing to uncertainties in measurements using high-temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs), especially during the realization of the silver freezing point (). This work is focused on the evaluation of the differences in resistance measurements observed when using AC resistance bridges and DC resistance bridges, hereafter, termed the AC-DC differences, as the result of various electrical effects. The magnitude of the AC-DC difference in several silver-point cells is demonstrated with several HTSPRTs. The effect of the cell structure on the AC-DC difference is evaluated by exchanging some components, part by part, within a silver-point cell. Then, the effect of the bias voltage applied to the heat pipe within the silver-point furnace is evaluated. Through the analysis of the experimental results and comparison with the reports in the literature, the importance of evaluating the AC-DC difference as a means to characterize the underlying electrical effects is discussed, considering that applying a negative bias condition to the furnace with respect to the high-temperature SPRT can minimize the AC-DC difference. Concluding recommendations are proposed on the components used in silver-point cells and the application of a bias voltage to the measurement circuit to minimize the effects of the electrical leakage.

    12. Comparing Different Approaches of Bias Correction for Ability Estimation in IRT Models. Research Report. ETS RR-08-13

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Jinming

      2008-01-01

      The method of maximum-likelihood is typically applied to item response theory (IRT) models when the ability parameter is estimated while conditioning on the true item parameters. In practice, the item parameters are unknown and need to be estimated first from a calibration sample. Lewis (1985) and Zhang and Lu (2007) proposed the expected response…

    13. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hummer-Miller, S.

      1981-01-01

      The magnitude of elevation effects due to changes in solar and sky fluxes, on interpretation of single thermal images and composite products such as temperature difference and thermal inertia, are examined. Simple expressions are derived for the diurnal behavior of the two parameters, by fitting field observations in one tropic (Hawaii) and two semi-arid climates (Wyoming and Colorado) (Hummer-Miller, 1981). It is shown that flux variations with elevation can cause changes in the mean diurnal temperature gradient from -4 to -14 degrees C/km, evaluated at 2000 m. Changes in the temperature-difference gradient of 1 to 2 degrees C/km are also produced which is equivalent to an effective thermal-inertia gradient of 100 W s(exp 1/2)/sq m-K-km. An example is presented showing an elevation effect of 12 degrees C on the day and night thermal scenes of a test site in Arizona.

    14. Estimating Orion Heat Shield Failure Due To Ablator Cracking During The EFT-1 Mission

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vander Kam, Jeremy C.; Gage, Peter

      2016-01-01

      The Orion EFT-1 heatshield suffered from two major certification challenges: First, the mechanical properties used in design were not evident in the flight hardware and second, the flight article itself cracked during fabrication. The combination of these events motivated the Orion Program to pursue an engineering-level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as part of heatshield certification rationale. The PRA provided loss of Mission (LOM) likelihoods considering the probability of a crack occurring during the mission and the likelihood of subsequent structure over-temperature. The methods and input data for the PRA are presented along with a discussion of the test data used to anchor the results. The Orion program accepted an EFT-1 Loss of Vehicle (LOV) risk of 1-in-160,000 due to in-mission Avcoat cracking based on the results of this analysis. Conservatisms in the result, along with future considerations for Exploration Missions (EM) are also addressed.

    15. Estimation of wildfire size and risk changes due to fuels treatments

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Cochrane, M.A.; Moran, C.J.; Wimberly, M.C.; Baer, A.D.; Finney, M.A.; Beckendorf, K.L.; Eidenshink, J.; Zhu, Z.

      2012-01-01

      Human land use practices, altered climates, and shifting forest and fire management policies have increased the frequency of large wildfires several-fold. Mitigation of potential fire behaviour and fire severity have increasingly been attempted through pre-fire alteration of wildland fuels using mechanical treatments and prescribed fires. Despite annual treatment of more than a million hectares of land, quantitative assessments of the effectiveness of existing fuel treatments at reducing the size of actual wildfires or how they might alter the risk of burning across landscapes are currently lacking. Here, we present a method for estimating spatial probabilities of burning as a function of extant fuels treatments for any wildland fire-affected landscape. We examined the landscape effects of more than 72 000 ha of wildland fuel treatments involved in 14 large wildfires that burned 314 000 ha of forests in nine US states between 2002 and 2010. Fuels treatments altered the probability of fire occurrence both positively and negatively across landscapes, effectively redistributing fire risk by changing surface fire spread rates and reducing the likelihood of crowning behaviour. Trade offs are created between formation of large areas with low probabilities of increased burning and smaller, well-defined regions with reduced fire risk.

    16. Estimate of neutral atoms contribution to the Mercury exosphere due to a new flux of micrometeoroids

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Borin, Patrizia; Bruno, Marco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marzari, Francesco

      2010-05-01

      Meteoroid impacts are an important source of neutral atoms in the exosphere of Mercury. Recent papers attribute to impacting particles smaller than 1 cm most of the contribution to exospheric gases. In this work we calculate the vapour and neutral atoms production rates on Mercury, as due to the impacts of micrometeoroids in the size range between 5-100 μm according to the new dynamical model of Borin et al. (2009). The calculations have been performed taking into account two different calibration sources for the meteoroid flux provided by Love and Brownlee (1993) (as for Borin et al., 2009) and by Grun et al. (1985). Moreover, we give different values of the vapour production rates assuming both asteroidal and cometary sources of the dust particles (Wiegert, 2009; Dermott et al., 2002). Following the assumption that the surface of the planet is spatially homogeneous and made up of regolith with anorthositic composition (Cremonese et al., 2005) we provide the production rate for different neutral atoms.

    17. Impacts of individual fish movement patterns on estimates of mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation in the Columbia River Basin.

      SciTech Connect

      Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Fidler, Larry E.

      2002-12-31

      Spatial and temporal distributions of dissolved gases in the Columbia and Snake rivers vary due to many factors including river channel and dam geometries, operational decisions, and natural variations in flow rates. As a result, the dissolved gas exposure histories experienced by migrating juvenile salmonids can vary significantly among individual fish. A discrete, particle-based model of individual fish movements and dissolved gas exposure history has been developed and applied to examine the effects of such variability on estimates of fish mortality. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories are then input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. This model framework provides a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological effects. FINS model parameters were estimated and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998. The model was then used to simulate exposure histories under selected operational scenarios. We compare mortality rates estimated using the FINS model approach (incorporating individual behavior and spatial and temporal variability) to those estimated using average exposure times and levels as is done in traditional lumped-parameter model approaches.

    18. Estimated Reduction in Cancer Risk due to PAH Exposures If Source Control Measures during the 2008 Beijing Olympics Were Sustained

      PubMed Central

      Jia, Yuling; Stone, Dave; Wang, Wentao; Schrlau, Jill; Tao, Shu; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

      2011-01-01

      Background The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games provided a unique case study to investigate the effect of source control measures on the reduction in air pollution, and associated inhalation cancer risk, in a Chinese megacity. Objectives We measured 17 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estimated the lifetime excess inhalation cancer risk during different periods of the Beijing Olympic Games, to assess the effectiveness of source control measures in reducing PAH-induced inhalation cancer risks. Methods PAH concentrations were measured in samples of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) collected during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the associated inhalation cancer risks were estimated using a point-estimate approach based on relative potency factors. Results We estimated the number of lifetime excess cancer cases due to exposure to the 17 carcinogenic PAHs [12 priority pollutant PAHs and five high-molecular-weight (302 Da) PAHs (MW 302 PAHs)] to range from 6.5 to 518 per million people for the source control period concentrations and from 12.2 to 964 per million people for the nonsource control period concentrations. This would correspond to a 46% reduction in estimated inhalation cancer risk due to source control measures, if these measures were sustained over time. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene were the most carcinogenic PAH species evaluated. Total excess inhalation cancer risk would be underestimated by 23% if we did not include the five MW 302 PAHs in the risk calculation. Conclusions Source control measures, such as those imposed during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, can significantly reduce the inhalation cancer risk associated with PAH exposure in Chinese megacities similar to Beijing. MW 302 PAHs are a significant contributor to the estimated overall inhalation cancer risk. PMID:21632310

    19. Exposure estimation errors to nitrogen oxides on a population scale due to daytime activity away from home.

      PubMed

      Shafran-Nathan, Rakefet; Yuval; Levy, Ilan; Broday, David M

      2017-02-15

      Accurate estimation of exposure to air pollution is necessary for assessing the impact of air pollution on the public health. Most environmental epidemiology studies assign the home address exposure to the study subjects. Here, we quantify the exposure estimation error at the population scale due to assigning it solely at the residence place. A cohort of most schoolchildren in Israel (~950,000), age 6-18, and a representative cohort of Israeli adults (~380,000), age 24-65, were used. For each subject the home and the work or school addresses were geocoded. Together, these two microenvironments account for the locations at which people are present during most of the weekdays. For each subject, we estimated ambient nitrogen oxide concentrations at the home and work or school addresses using two air quality models: a stationary land use regression model and a dynamic dispersion-like model. On average, accounting for the subjects' work or school address as well as for the daily pollutant variation reduced the estimation error of exposure to ambient NOx/NO2 by 5-10ppb, since daytime concentrations at work/school and at home can differ significantly. These results were consistent regardless which air quality model as used and even for subjects that work or study close to their home. Yet, due to their usually short commute, assigning schoolchildren exposure solely at their residential place seems to be a reasonable estimation. In contrast, since adults commute for longer distances, assigning exposure of adults only at the residential place has a lower correlation with the daily weighted exposure, resulting in larger exposure estimation errors. We show that exposure misclassification can result from not accounting for the subjects' time-location trajectories through the spatiotemporally varying pollutant concentrations field.

    20. Estimating salinity intrusion effects due to climate change on the Lower Savannah River Estuary

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Cook, John B.; Sexton, Charles T.; Tufford, Daniel L.; Carbone, Gregory J.; Dow, Kristin

      2010-01-01

      alternative scenarios of interest. Important freshwater resources are located proximal to the freshwater-saltwater interface of the estuary. The Savannah National Wildlife Refuge is located in the upper portion of the Savannah River Estuary. The tidal freshwater marsh is an essential part of the 28,000-acre refuge and is home to a diverse variety of wildlife and plant communities. Two municipal freshwater intakes are located upstream from the refuge. To evaluate the impact of climate change on salinity intrusion on these resources, inputs of streamflows and mean tidal water levels were modified to incorporate estimated changes in precipitation patterns and sea-level rise appropriate for the Southeastern United States. Changes in mean tidal water levels were changed parametrically for various sea-level rise conditions. Preliminary model results at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Interstate-95 streamgage (station 02198840) for a 7½-year simulation show that historical daily salinity concentrations never exceeded 0.5 practical salinity units (psu). A 1-foot sea-level rise (ft, 30.5 centimeters [cm]) would increase the number of days of salinity concentrations greater than 0.5 psu to 47 days. A 2-ft (61 cm) sea-level rise would increase the number of days to 248.

    • «
    • 15
    • 16
    • 17
    • 18
    • 19
    • »


    loading Pin close-up




ity intrusion on these resources, inputs of streamflows and mean tidal water levels were modified to incorporate estimated changes in precipitation patterns and sea-level rise appropriate for the Southeastern United States. Changes in mean tidal water levels were changed parametrically for various sea-level rise conditions. Preliminary model results at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Interstate-95 streamgage (station 02198840) for a 7½-year simulation show that historical daily salinity concentrations never exceeded 0.5 practical salinity units (psu). A 1-foot sea-level rise (ft, 30.5 centimeters [cm]) would increase the number of days of salinity concentrations greater than 0.5 psu to 47 days. A 2-ft (61 cm) sea-level rise would increase the number of days to 248.



tiffany xo ring the sims 2

the sims 2 tiffany xo ring

    tiffany osta verkossa-main breadcrumb">

  • tiffany xo ring

    tiffany ja co outlet
    anel de casamento tiffany
    ティファニービーズブレスレット
    • «
    • 15
    • 16
    • 17
    • 18
    • 19
    • »
    1. Estimating the change in asymptotic direction due to secular changes in the geomagnetic field

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Flueckiger, E. O.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Gentile, L. C.; Bathurat, A. A.

      1985-01-01

      The concept of geomagnetic optics, as described by the asymptotic directions of approach, is extremely useful in the analysis of cosmic radiation data. However, when changes in cutoff occur as a result of evolution in the geomagnetic field, there are corresponding changes in the asymptotic cones of acceptance. A method is introduced of estimating the change in the asymptotic direction of approach for vertically incident cosmic ray particles from a reference set of directions at a specific epoch by considering the change in the geomagnetic cutoff.

    2. Estimated variability of real-ear insertion response (REIR) due to loudspeaker type and placement.

      PubMed

      Stone, Michael A; Moore, Brian C

      2004-05-01

      The real-ear insertion response (REIR) of a hearing aid is estimated as the difference between the aided response and the unaided response in the ear canal. Changes in the position of the loudspeaker relative to the head, between the two measurements, may reduce the accuracy of the estimate. The spatial variability of the sound field at distances close to the loudspeaker is less for a 'flat-panel' loudspeaker than for a conventional cone loudspeaker; the panel might thus lead to a reduced influence of loud-speaker position. To assess this, we measured the real-ear unaided response (REUR) as each of three loudspeakers (two cone type and one panel) was moved in a three-dimensional space centred at either 0 degrees or 45 degrees azimuth, at a distance of 50cm from a KEMAR manikin. Contrary to our expectation, the variability of the REUR was larger for the panel than for the cone loudspeakers The REUR varied less with position for the 0 degrees than for the 45 degrees azimuth. The variability of the REUR decreased with increasing distance of the loudspeaker from KEMAR. We tentatively suggest that loudspeaker-to-client distances of 40-50 cm should be used and that a 0 degrees azimuth is preferable.

    3. Model estimates of sea-level change due to anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial water storage

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Yamada, Tomohito J.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

      2012-06-01

      Global sea level has been rising over the past half century, according to tide-gauge data. Thermal expansion of oceans, melting of glaciers and loss of the ice masses in Greenland and Antarctica are commonly considered as the largest contributors, but these contributions do not entirely explain the observed sea-level rise. Changes in terrestrial water storage are also likely to affect sea level, but comprehensive and reliable estimates of this contribution, particularly through human water use, are scarce. Here, we estimate sea-level change in response to human impacts on terrestrial water storage by using an integrated model that simulates global terrestrial water stocks and flows (exclusive to Greenland and Antarctica) and especially accounts for human activities such as reservoir operation and irrigation. We find that, together, unsustainable groundwater use, artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in terrestrial water storage and the loss of water from closed basins have contributed a sea-level rise of about 0.77mmyr-1 between 1961 and 2003, about 42% of the observed sea-level rise. We note that, of these components, the unsustainable use of groundwater represents the largest contribution.

    4. Detection of incoherent joint state due to inaccurate bone motion estimation.

      PubMed

      Schwartz, Cédric; Leboeuf, Fabien; Rémy-Néris, Olivier; Brochard, Sylvain; Lempereur, Mathieu; Burdin, Valérie

      2013-01-01

      In biomechanical modelling and motion analysis, the use of personalised data such as bone geometry would provide more accurate and reliable results. However, there are still a limited number of tools used to measure the evolution of articular interactions. This paper proposes a coherence index to describe the articular status of contact surfaces during motion. The index relies on a robust estimation of the evolution of surfacic interactions between the joint surfaces. The index is first compared to distance maps on simulated motions. It is then used to compare two motion capture protocols (two different localisations of the markers for scapula tracking). The results show that the index detects progressive modifications in the joint and allows distinguishing the two protocols, in accordance with the literature. In the future, the index could, among other things, be used to compare/improve biomechanical models and motion analysis protocols.

    5. Estimating Errors in Satellite Retrievals of Bio-Optical Properties due to Incorrect Aerosol Model Selection

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2011-01-01

      as Martha’s Vineyard or Venice. This is due to a large amount of cloud coverage during the year, as well as the AERONET-OC station being unavailable...can be used to produce a good result for nLw(412) for day 176. This is an instance where the MODIS image has sporadic cloud coverage, as well as haze...1989). [10] Gordon, H. R., Brown, J. W. and Evans, R. H., "Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus -7 Coastal Zone Color

    6. Quantification and Radiological Risk Estimation Due to the Presence of Natural Radionuclides in Maiganga Coal, Nigeria

      PubMed Central

      Kolo, Matthew Tikpangi; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah Binti

      2016-01-01

      Following the increasing demand of coal for power generation, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides were determined in Nigerian coal using the gamma spectrometric technique with the aim of evaluating the radiological implications of coal utilization and exploitation in the country. Mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 8.18±0.3, 6.97±0.3, and 27.38±0.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values were compared with those of similar studies reported in literature. The mean estimated radium equivalent activity was 20.26 Bq kg-1 with corresponding average external hazard index of 0.05. Internal hazard index and representative gamma index recorded mean values of 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. These values were lower than their respective precautionary limits set by UNSCEAR. Average excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated to be 0.04×10−3, which was insignificant compared with 0.05 prescribed by ICRP for low level radiation. Pearson correlation matrix showed significant positive relationship between 226Ra and 232Th, and with other estimated hazard parameters. Cumulative mean occupational dose received by coal workers via the three exposure routes was 7.69 ×10−3 mSv y-1, with inhalation pathway accounting for about 98%. All radiological hazard indices evaluated showed values within limits of safety. There is, therefore, no likelihood of any immediate radiological health hazards to coal workers, final users, and the environment from the exploitation and utilization of Maiganga coal. PMID:27348624

    7. HIV and related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Iran: bias-adjusted estimates from the 2010 National Bio-Behavoral Survey.

      PubMed

      Mirzazadeh, Ali; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Navadeh, Soodabeh; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; McFarland, Willi; Mohammad, Kazem

      2014-01-01

      In a national, facility-based survey of female sex workers in 14 cities of Iran (N = 872), HIV prevalence was measured at 4.5 % (95 % CI, 2.4-8.3) overall and at 11.2 % (95 % CI, 3.4-18.9) for FSW with a history of injection drug use. Using methods to correct for biases in reporting sensitive information, the estimate of unprotected sex in last act was 35.8 %, ever injecting drugs was 37.6 %, sexually transmitted disease symptoms was 82.1 %, and not testing for HIV in the last year was 64.0 %. The amount of bias correction ranged from <1 to >30 %, in parallel with the level of stigma associated with each behavior. Considering the current upward trajectory of HIV infection in the Middle East and North Africa region, as well as the ongoing high level of risky behaviors and considerable underreporting of many such behaviors in surveys, bias corrections may be needed, especially in the context of Iran, to obtain more accurate information to guide prevention and care responses to stop the growing HIV epidemic in this vulnerable group of women.

    8. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

      SciTech Connect

      Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

      2014-11-28

      In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006–3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires “filling up” all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

    9. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

      2014-11-01

      In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006-3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires "filling up" all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

    10. Non-linear corrections to the cosmological matter power spectrum and scale-dependent galaxy bias: implications for parameter estimation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

      2008-07-01

      We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of co