Re: GBlist: Dangers of CCA Pressure Treated Woodglobal directoryA Language For GardenersCity Listings - Environment (January 25 - January 31, 1996)The Best HydroponicsThe Seattle Times: Special ReportsBest of the HumusphereBiorealism: READING NATURE'S BLUEPRINTSCross Timbers Recommended ReadingScientific American: Technology and Business: GETTING THE DIRT ON DIRT: 8/97Scientific American: Technology and Business: FARMING WITH LINT: 8/97Table Of ContentsDra uffewxiv. tiffany \u0026 co canadagonfly Entomology BibliographyDancing Rabbit: An Ecovillage CommunityFarming in Los AngelesLife in the Soil video update/Nature FarmingNew BookMichael's Recommended Reading ListMichael's Recommended Reading ListFAQ Table of Contents tiffany agus co melbourne


AGRONOMY

GETTING THE DIRT ON DIRT

It may look like just a speck of dirt to the naked eye, but under an electron microscope a crumb of prairie soil is really a carefully constructed "apartment building," home to the small critters that recycle decaying organic matter into usable nutrients. About a millimeter across, a soil crumb--or macroaggregate--is riddled with water- and air-filled pores that shelter such organisms as bacteria, fungi and nematodes. As these organisms dine on dead roots, fertilizer and even one another, they release the nitrogen compounds that feed growing plants.

U.S. Department of Agriculture soil scientist Cynthia Cambardella is passionate about macroaggregates. She and her colleagues at the National Soil Tilth Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, study soil structure and its effect on nutrient cycling in the hope of developing more efficient and environmentally friendly farming techniques. Soils with abundant macroaggregates do a better job of supporting plant life and lose fewer nutrients to leaching; therefore, much of Cambardella's work focuses on the formation and degradation of these rich crumbs in agricultural lands.

Cambardella has her graduate student Jeff Gale of Iowa State University use radioactive carbon 14, for example, to observe the aggregation process in soil as the debris from harvested oat plants decomposes. Gale sows his oats in large pots kept in a walk-in growth chamber. As the plants grow to a height of a meter, he periodically doses them with radioactivity by combining carbon 14-tagged sodium bicarbonate with a dilute acid inside the growth chamber. When the acid hits the radioactive baking soda, the mixture foams, liberating "hot" carbon dioxide that is fixed by the growing plants and incorporated into their tissues.

After the plants are harvested, Gale and Cambardella can trace the radioactive organic materials from the remaining roots and straw as they decompose and become incorporated into the soil structure. They are finding that the presence of relatively fresh plant matter in the soil helps to stabilize its structure--the number of macroaggregates peaks about 180 days after the harvest, and then the aggregates start to break down, potentially compromising soil quality.

Studying aggregate formation, Gale says, will help farmers learn to maintain good soil structure in the field. Cambardella believes that understanding soil structure is vital to developing agricultural practices that do not cause topsoil erosion or the contamination of aquifers and surface waters with fertilizer runoff. "We need to learn more about what's really going on in the soil," Cambardella says. "We can't black-box it anymore."

--Rebecca Zacks


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Lake Forest CA Brenda Gutmann F Borden IN Jason Brandenburg M Highlands Ranch CO Taharka McCleave M Westworth Village TX Tina Heil F Milwaukee WI Micah Nash M Pleasant Hill CA Susan Kanvik F Bainbridge Island WA Jenap - Catwoman M. Said F Bukit Batok East Ave. 5 Michelle Day F Highlands Ranch CO Kristina Funseth F Minneapolis MN David Ong M Singapore keith clemens M atlanta GA Nicholas Barrett M Kent WA Dan Friesen M Kirkland WA Brian Raub M Lafayette IN Chris Jones M San Francisco CA yisroel pupko M brooklyn NY Timothy Troxel M Francesville IN Loren Janke M Spearfish SD wendy jelinek F Gig Harbor WA Kenneth Kamper M JBLM WA Lauren Cox F Baton Rouge LA Trina Poppe F Provo UT Carla Zweigart F Beaverton OR Dan Barkley M Tacoma WA Tonya Pavek F New Prague MN Giovanni Guevarra M North Las Vegas NV Angela Batten F Portage MI REBECCA WALKER F ARVADA CO Jeffrey Farrier M San Diego CA Gary Walker M Olympia WA SUSIE CHAN F HATTIESBURG MS Paulette Kosinski F Port Orchard WA Camilla Eng F Los Angeles CA Shaun Curry M Lakewood WA Gary Girten M Plain City OH Doug Osterberg M Menasha WI Brett Upton M Bondville VT Scott Esposito M Albuquerque NM Peter Pourzand M Philadelphia PA Kimly Arroyo F SEATTLE WA Shawna Wentlandt F Warner Springs CA Stacey Brennen F Santee CA Jim Higgins M Lubbock TX Theresa Hoff F Escondido CA Mark Cartwright M North Bend WA sumalee sangsurasak F pasadena CA Vanessa McClimans F Palm Bay FL Chad Berg M Carnation WA Sam Mason M Lakeport CA Tana Setness Hoefs F Grand Forks ND Darryl Stillson M Broken Arrow OK Khirstine Lumban F Ontario CA Paul Turner M Portland OR Daniel Roesch M Pearl City HI Dan Bowman M Kelso WA Terry Mack M Coeur d'Alene ID Linh Shark F Olympia WA Christelle Gigant F Spring TX Linda Ballard F Chandler AZ Anna Katherine Freeland F Greenville SC Jim Ballard M Chandler AZ Alexzander Pullen M North Haven CT Doug Vetsch M Dalton Gardens ID Scott Olitsky M Leawood KS Deana Hoffman F Eau Claire WI Eric Beck M West Valley City UT Daiki Nakajima M Ridgefield Park NJ Jim Almquist M Gilbert AZ Earl English M Rochester Hills MI Anthony Phillips M Fond du lac WI Wes Wright M Kenmore WA Angie Capriccio F Raleigh NC Rodney Jenkins M Raleigh NC Gregor Heufer M Hahnstaetten Adriane Majlesi F Hillsborough CA Terry Salaices M Las Vegas NV Diana Trzebiatowski F Amherst WI Glenn Munson M Memphis TN peter ripmaster M fairview NC Tehra Scott F Mitchell SD David Messer M Ewa beach HI Vern Patterson M Solon OH Will Sanchez M New York NY Janel Yockers Chesser F Broken Arrow OK alisha bryson F wilmington DE DANILO MENDOZA M SAN ANTONIO TX Caedmon Nash M Burnaby Georgeta Gruescu F Bothell WA Jonathan Fass M Athens GA Jeff Wood M Bellevue WA Danie Matusik F chelsea MI Rachael Parker F Forest Grove OR Dina Myers F Overland Park KS John Gilbert M New York NY sarah corliss F samaria MI George Frederick M University Place WA Rick Troeh M Independence MO James Westbury M Griffin GA Melissa Johnson F Green OH Paul Schmidt M Yarrow Point WA DONALD ZETH M PORT ORCHARD WA Gerry Wilkins M Fox Lake IL Lou Kneeshaw M Houston TX Jason Mell M Hainesport NJ Timothy Hurst M South Jordan UT kristin allen F Philadelphia PA Klaren Alexander M Hazelhurst WI Kaia Turner F South Riding VA Carol-Ann Gegenhuber F Ferndale WA Nicole Pizzi F South Easton MA Julie Kazmier F Bow Mar CO Jennifer Abanero F Lindenhurst IL John D. Christopher M Albany NY David Pittman M La Grange IL Joe Johnson M St Louis MO DONNA FISCHER F ROSELLE IL Christie Bane F Tucson AZ Darren Dierkes M Davenport IA Rachel Wasserman F Chicago IL Steven Elster M St. Louis MO Sommer Mueller F Owensboro KY Noah Lam M Stony Brook NY Phil Mishka M Swanton OH Anthony Slinn M Mukilteo WA anil devegowda M addison TX Jim Halsey M Fishers IN David Fink M Milwaukee WI Vicky Halsey F Fishers IN Mark Cliggett M Seattle WA Libby Jones F Allen TX Daniel Ek M Santa Clara CA Louis Perez M Granada Hills CA Louis J. Gonzalez III M bronx NY Elliott Gaskins M dupont WA Richard Ramirez M North bergen NJ Elizabeth Glover F Bethesda MD Suzanne Caruso-Brown F Tulsa OK Steve Burgess M Madison MS Tim Cleary M Signal Mountain TN Jane Sturzaker F Australia Allen Benson M Gig harbor WA Kirk Isakson M Tacoma WA Cassie Beck F Catonsville MA Amy Rand F Shawnee KS amy hanlon F danbury CT Andrea Odrzywolski F Milwaukee WI Chris Taylor M Prior Lake MN Christina Mitchell F Gig Harbor WA Ryan Matherne M Stamford CT Mary Ibbetson F Selkirk NY Dana Ellis M Port Orchard WA Rebecca Tsai F New York NY Gina Chupka F Golden CO Michelle Taylor F Aurora IL Carl Bliss M Bayport MN John Wallace M Ishpeming MI Sandy Waite F Santa Ana CA Danielle Sterling F Westbrook ME John Abbate M Yorktown Heights NY Dayna Harrison F Germantown MD Lee Ann Lee F Hamilton TX Bill Goodrich M Bath ME LARA GONZALEZ F BROOKLYN NY Erin Fry F Anaheim Hills CA Julie Weidner F Lake Worth FL Derk Pinkerton M Tulsa OK Lisa Gesualdo F Bel Air MD Brett Beier M Kalamazoo MI Patrick Wise M Wynne AR Barbara Hamill F Tulsa OK Denise Bardsley F Rancho Santa Margarita CA Patti DeNichols F Naperville IL Allison Blaisdell F Boston MA Paul Maness M Springfield MO Michael Kloosterman M Brighton MI Mike Kreaden M Sunnyvale CA Kelly (Zeus) Ano M Sylvan Beach NY Cheryl (Xena) Rich-Ano F Sylvan Beach NY Justin Taylor M Poughkeepsie NY Christine Bell F Naperville IL Valerie Hewitt F Reno NV Bryan Revling M Hanovder Park IL Meleah Shank F Irvine CA Julie Musselman F Shorewood MN April Birts F Fort Wayne IN Michelle Leach F Omaha NE James Daly M Red Lion PA Marie Hoffman F Seattle WA Jessica Rich F Arlington VA Jeffrey Jandi M Parma Heights OH Greg Sisengrath M Allen TX Aliza Breault F Moon Township PA Philip Haines M Omaha NE Karen May F Park Ridge IL Brian Adkins M Chicago IL Rose Vrbos F Carol Stream IL Gita Conroy F Rome NY Ralph Brown M Naperville IL Thomas Bane M Las Vegas NV Brady Wentlandt M Warner Springs CA Wendy Nail F APO AP John Strohmeyer M Austin TX Ken Fattmann M Overland Park KS Heather Echols F Overland Park KS Stephanie Hicks F Bend OR Zoe Cofer F Rogersville MO Sherri Hotzler F Webster City IA Christine Durham F Spring Grove IL Roger Sherwood M enumclaw WA Gene Van Camp F Lisle IL Cheryl Anderson F Pinckney MI Rachel Happel F Springfield MO James Clarke M Portland OR cade Remsburg M West Des Moines IA Clifford Matthews M Albuquerque NM Robert Warren M Vancouver WA David Seidman M Bellevue WA Sharon Mante F Salinas CA Dallas Campion F Goodview MN Andrew Urbaczewski M Canton MI Tom Lynch M Natick MA John Leimkuhler M Naperville IL Zora Luckett F Innisfil Andrew Dacanay M Halifax, Canada Kathy Lein F Bend OR Lisa Kosto F Soldotna AK Jennifer Ruland F White City Christy Schenck F Woodinville WA David Floutier M Olympia WA Rhonda Emerson F Pearland TX Vincent Wenger M Schenectady NY Ellen White F Beaverton OR Runner Bob Simon M Waco TX Rick Cummins M Farmington Hills MI Elizabeth Thornton F Spokane VAlley WA Donald Thornton M Spokane VAlley WA Dawn Kenderes F tualatin OR Dan McGuire M Canton MI jan repsch M albuquerque NM John Hieb M Wilsonville OR Josh Hogan M Mundelein IL Diana Sheets F Olympia WA Debbie Laur F Olympia WA RUNora James F Bend OR Leslie Booker F Round Rock TX Talva Parker F Lees Summit MO Jared Nelson M Holt FL Joe Schrum M Tacoma WA Thomas Brockland M Miami FL Craig Smith M Springfield IL Christopher Rayder M Collierville TN Steve Maliszewski M Houston TX Brian Connor M Silverdale WA Jessica Willis F Pittsfield MA James Hawthorne M Southworth WA Sandy Hugill F Arlington VA Lauren Groppi F Plymouth MA Fred Woods M Yucaipa CA Jennifer Hienton F Chicago IL Renee Dailey F Batavia IL Peter Mingoa M San Francisco CA Seth Ramaley M Smyrna GA Jim Willis M Atascadero CA Rodney Beeker M Lexington KY Jerry Stevenson M Rathdrum ID Justin Gillette M Goshen IN Michael S.K. Mortensen M Odense N, Denmark Jessica Lynch F Solomons MD Lindsy Wenz F Blair NE Jeffrey Heath M Cranston RI Linda Kilpatrick F Clearlake WA Joanne Gondert M Troy MI Sean Walters M Hillsboro OR Luisa Lopez F Seattle WA Amy Holt F Kennewick WA Karen Manganaro F Erie PA Robert Petrocelli M Sunnyside NY Brigitte Setness F Mitchell SD Kristi Perryman F Sand Springs OK Jeff Liu M Irvine CA Jordan Applebaum M Herndon VA Sherry Coffield F Dacula GA Emily Smith F Jonesboro AR Mitzi Manning F jonesboro AR alison mcginnis F ALISO VIEJO CA alison mcginnis F ALISO VIEJO CA Jon Headley M Springfield MO Kevin Fallon M Seattle WA Lisa O'Grady F Redford MI Sara Brunazzi F Boston PA Ken Locke M Cartersville GA Adrian Skinner M Sleepy Hollow IL Holly Aulen F Fox Lake IL Joseph (Joe) Maney M Wonder lake IL Heather Stockdell F Fishers IN Treva Thoms F Bronxville NY Terry Mork M Defiance MO Juli Mork F Defiance MO Patrick Scoco M Pittsfield MA Mitchell Salain M Dahlonega GA Christina Patterson F Cincinnati OH brandon Perkins M tulsa OK Brandon Wood M Anchorage AK Rachel Edney F Yukon OK Lisa Smith F St Louis MO Wendy McIntosh F Charlotte NC Christian Riegel M Regina Katherine Robinson F Regina Jenny O'Keefe F Tulsa OK Brandi Zakrzewski F Sanford FL Winston Trice M Hayes VA Johanna Losert F Bethesda MD Randall Egge M Chicago IL Marlin Yoder M Holmesville OH Bryan Pellerin M Barrie Jessie Thiel F Broken Arrow OK Rich Marr M Flint MI Matthew Hunter Jamerson M Jacksonville Beach FL Stephanie Epstein F Chicago IL THOMAS GIBSON M OWASSO OK Mary Harvey F Brooklyn NY Kevin Prester M Brighton TN Louisa Lam F Wayne NJ Suzy Waters F Kennewick WA Luke Wiseman M Newport KY Sam Pettway M Atlanta GA Ray deQuintal M Nazareth PA Eric Strand M Saint Louis MO Rieko Lyell F Santa Rita Kirk Stafford M Portland OR J.R. Mintz M Hercules CA Jenna O'Horan F Sarasota FL Jeff Storch M Montello WI Jessica Guitard F Port St. Lucie FL gina ferlise F sarasota FL Dawn Lyke F Sarasota FL Ron Ayers M Algonquin IL Lin Snowe F Villa Rica GA Ramanathan Thirunallaih M Frederick MD Dana Dews F Richmond VA Keith Hedger M Columbus GA Michelle Gordon F Ajax Steven Bothe M Newnan GA donna parrish F Douglasville GA Cori Heden F Fredericksburg VA todd oliver M Carmel IN Lorna Castellanos F Miami FL kurt eckert M beech grove IN Kelly Hjelle F Edmonds WA JOSEPH LEONGUERRERO M CIBOLO TX Bryan West M Gardner KS Christiana Garton F San Antonio TX Brian Olson M Alpharetta GA Paul Grinvalds M West Des Moines IA Lori Furr M Douglasville GA Kent Moore M Roswell GA Kent Kelley M McAlester OK Paul Troiano M Cumming GA David Hosier M Chicago IL Jim Roche M Alexandria VA Anna Spears F San Antonio TX Calvin Conner M Staten Island NY Colleen Huml F Wheaton IL Trey Brush M Jefferson GA David Keck M Rancho Cucamonga CA Nancy Wampach M Woodstock IL Mary Arnold F New York NY Helen Soto F Shelton CT Elisa Park F San Francisco CA Shawna Simpson F Tulsa OK Geoffrey Simpson M Tulsa OK Joe Vasil M Broadview Heights OH Mark Gautier M Woodbine MD Donald Bierer M Haan Bob Hoaglin M Lakeville MN Cyndie Nell F West Jordan UT HARDIN WATKINS M GARNER NC Carl Medeiros M Beavercreek OH Teota Dangel F Salt Lake UT John Zeier M Vancouver WA craig martinosky M branson MO Julie Hankins F Chino Hills CA Angela Fritz F Tulsa OK Jackie Panfili F Carmel IN Jeff Witt M Dadeville MO DANIEL NIEVES M NYC NY Amanda Freedle F Falls Church VA Mary Jo Marzinzik F Arlington VA Mark Cato M Hensley AR Ron Marsh M Tulsa OK Richelle Runyon F Keosauqua IA Steven Scoleri M Peachtree City GA Naili (Fiona) An F New York NY Betsy Wilkinson F Jenks OK MARC STEPHENS M SPRINGFIELD MO Thomas Wozencraft M Sand Springs OK Sandi Rowe F New York NY Elizabeth Podrebarac F Washington DC Yosuke Matsumura M New York NY Candy Findley F Mableton GA Larry Chase M Springfield MO Lori Strazzulla F Vero Beach FL Kathryn Stoker F Norwalk CT Shane Bennett M Broken Arrow OK Kia Taylor F Acworth GA William Crader M Manhattan Beach CA Lauren Lundy F Nanuet NY Buckley Collum M Malibu CA Donny Danner M Kansas City MO Ray Schwartz M Jersey City NJ Joseph Herman M Bronx NY DAVID WILSON M MURFREESBORO TN Heather Laurel F Woodside NY Samantha Gattsek F Brooklyn NY Paul Lee M Searingtown NY Michael Gerwien M Milford CT Jeremiah Bargar M New York NY Tracey Hasler F Sparta MO Marlon Esguerra M Woodside NY carolyn mitchell F Lenexa KS Margaret McGregor F Chicago IL Ray First M Sand Springs OK Wil Dirkin M Mount Misery NJ Theresa Woo F Oakland CA Suzanne Willette F East Granby CT Christa King F Springfield MO Rick Gausche M Tampa FL Gavin Long M ENGLAND Ashly Miller F San Ramon CA Carol Nicholas F Lecanto FL Chuck Hollen M Sarasota FL Julie Marsden F Goldsboro NC stacey doherty F elkridge MD Lori Queen F Tualatin OR Dustin Borkosky M West Salem WI Andrea Telmo F Albuquerque NM Brad Wolvin M Derwood MD Hong Vuong M Mississauga Scott Thompson M Escondido CA Stacey Varner F Brooklyn NY Matthew Abel M Gig Harbor WA Tracy Soja F Old Saybrook CT Melissa Heath F Williamsburg VA David Heath M Williamsburg VA Jennifer Rucker F Rockville MD Rebecca Schaefer F Philadelphia PA Tracy Mueller F Fort Collins CO Stacey Gershwin F San Jose CA Zach Fodor M Tampa FL Liz Storn F Brightwood OR Robert Martzen M Nutley NJ Michael Lam M Lynnwood WA Laurie Lindstrom F Manistique MI Rhonda Daulton F Enumclaw WA Debra Hopson Taylor F Lewiston ID Suann Lundsberg F Colleyville TX Megan Burger F Tigard OR Michelle Green - Tolin F Cincinnati OH Gary Cote' M Kirkland WA Lowell Handschke M Plano TX Malya Howaida F Duvall WA Richard Kresser M Portland OR Jennifer Traufler F Bonney Lake WA Denna Mitchell F Greenfield IA Jessie Sentivan F Warren NJ Gregory Payne M Richland WA Kris Payne F Richland WA Patty Cyr F Maplewood MO MICHAEL JALBERT M NEW YORK NY JOHN HORTON M PROSPECT KY Howard Keener, Jr. M Wilmington DE Jennifer Farrell F Wauwatosa WI Stuart Mayhugh M Fairfax VA Sami Kirkendall F Tulsa OK Alex Suchey M Rancho Cucamonga CA Jeanette Trujillo F Norwalk CT Steve Bender M Landenberg PA Craig Metzger M Warwick RI Michael Strobel M Damascus OR Thomas Mangan M Pittsburgh PA Jill Egbert F Manchester VT Paul Raley M DOVER DE Michelle Trujillo F Cookeville TN Lawrence Block M Calgary Sarah Parrish F Maryville TN Kate Engster F Orange Park FL Chris Tay M woodland Bret Calltharp M Sarasota FL Mark Shachner M Coral Springs FL Danielle Cupido F Elgin SC Marsha Monson F Riverton UT Michael (Dr Dude) Rhodes M Cleburne TX Ken LeBoutillier M Sarasota FL Bob Fodstad M Evansville IN Joshua Drake M Hot Springs AR cindy stage F conway AR Charlene Valerio F Orlando FL Jill Jensen F Pewaukee WI Keith Rinehart M North Richland Hills TX Galen Hansen M Roeland Park KS Kennard Wilson M Chicago IL James Erwin M Maumelle AR Bob Kennedy M Durham NH Geri Mondek F Naperville IL Jim Mondek M Naperville IL Kelly Browning F Sandy Hook VA Jenny Savold F Bethany OK David Splitek M San Antonio TX Rhonda Blackford-Noonan F Carencro LA Jacob Case M Salt Lake City UT Pureza Bacor F Pasadena CA Melanie Owen F Cincinnati OH Mary Coffelt F Tualatin OR Nathan Kreeger M King NC Kim Wesdock F Midlothian VA James Moloney, Jr. M Yonkers NY Andrew Solovay M Sunnyvale CA Justin Faries M Plano TX Bryan Cichon M Jacksonville FL Angela Morris F Oklahoma City OK Marlon Onco M Norman OK Jennifer Belmore F Lees Summit MO Nathanael Hevelone M Allston MA Wayne Wright M Homestead FL Brent Morrison M Hot Springs AR Dianne Morrison M Hot Springs AR Mary Harokopus F McKinney TX Wendy Prindle F Newbury Park CA Micaela Jensen F Bow WA Howard Choi M Glen Cove NY Kevin Hackethal M Edwardsville IL dave weiss M corning NY Kevin Morris M Danville CA Stasy Taylor F Wann OK Stephanie Clark F Philadelphia PA Sue Colgan-Borror F Pound Ridge NY Francis Lee M Daly City CA Melissa D. Meek F Cheshire CT Angie Spencer F Sikeston MO Cheryl Wright F Homestead FL Arrow Chan M Singapore Man Lim F Singapore Sheri D'Hansel F Naperville IL Kelli Brockmann F Waukee IA Jan Atchison F Rhodes IA Matthew Maday M Chicago IL Theresa Newton F Des Moines IA Kristen Spaeth F Marina Del Rey CA Tammy Newton F carlisle IA Angela Knight F West Des Moines IA Shira Brewer F Seattle WA Caesar Lastimosa M Chicago IL Sindhu Rajan F Potomac MD Jill Bronner F Northfield NJ Rob Distante M Eastvale CA Carolyn Mobley F Austin TX Joel Blackwelder M charlotte NC Susan Chimento F Millstone Township NJ Tan Yoong Soon M Singapore Timothy Smith M Absecon NJ Allen Wyatt M Charlotte NC Don Price M Wilmington DE Robert McElroy M Fort Worth TX Felipe Rael M Honolulu HI Bhoovarahan Desikan M Hong Kong Christopher Bruno M Bethesda MD Lisa Moss F Rockville MD Alvin Lee M Bowie MD Larry Urquhart M Southbury CT Zac Elliott M College Station TX Lynn Grieger F Manchester Center VT Michael Storey M Benton AR Dan Semsel M WPAFB OH Deborah Greene F Seattle WA Stacey Shapiro M Austin TX Sarah Stein-Lobovits F Austin TX Billy Pierce M Wilmington DE Zar Toolan M Saint Louis MO Susan Phillips F Oklahoma City OK Joao Assis Cabeleira M Lisboa Zachary Knebel M Highland IL Darren Sorgenfrei M Portage MI Rona Smith F Huntington Beach CA Craig Haugaard M Aberdeen SD Lora Haugaard F Aberdeen SD Bob Navarro M Plainfield IL Lori Wagner F Evansville IN Dave Powers M Milwaukee WI Judi O'Connell F Wheaton IL Daniel Broh-Kahn M Phoenix MD Jerry Bartolome M Mililani HI Jerry O'Hara M Willoughby Hills OH sally chen F brooklyn NY Laura Schneider F Lewes DE Timothy Agee M Nashville TN Kathleen Holmes F Arlington VA Angie Smith F Mill Creek WA Charles Mann M Hamilton Square NJ Winston Wong Chee Wee M Singapore thelonious Johnson M brooklyn NY Eileen Boettcher F Alexandria VA Will Hale M Hamilton TX Michael Hanson M Las Vegas NV Chris Hall M Alexander AR Michael Hanson M Las Vegas NV Diana Sundara F Ballwin MO Julie severns F Cabot AR Karen Wallce M Ishpeming MI Wayne ( Frost M Midland TX BJ Freeman F Kensington MD Paula Jean Lunt F Tenants Harbor ME Regina Maddox F Owasso OK Bill Smith M Liberty MO Steve Geertgens M Seattle WA Jennifer Maraschky F Spanaway WA Kenneth Adgate M Acton MA Mitch Brouwer M Hudsonville MI Rianne Suico-Gee F San Francisco CA Colter Menke M San Diego CA Erica Cruz F Los Angeles CA Cassandra Cisneros F Rocklin CA Jennifer Ralston F Raleigh NC Eunji Kim F flushing NY Robert Wolhar M Rehoboth Beach DE Anthony Akin M Olathe KS andi stracner F mayflower AR Don Bland M Woodway TX Allison Roth F Plainsboro NJ Karen Ng F Singapore Jennifer Cheng F Chicago IL Brendan O'Sullivan-Hale M Indianapolis IN Gina Colston F Bellbrook OH Paul McBride M Muncie IN Stefanie Pitts F Schenectady NY Jimmy Toy M Sugar Land TX Nurian Toy F Sugar Land TX MIKAILA BURNS F COLUMBUS OH fernando bosseloo M oceano CA Liz Roberts F Las Flores CA Andrew Nerney M Wilmington DE Ross Forman M Buffalo Grove IL Cindy Adams F Lodi CA Leah Nicholas F Sayreville NJ Kar Min Huie M Fresh Meadows NY Galen Collins M The Woodlands TX Leslie Snyder F Lodi CA Missy Hardeman F Hubbard TX Jason Walters M Doswell VA Lee Lingo M Madisonville KY Paul Calizaire M New York NY Daniel Tomko M Bellevue WA Kay Scott F Bedford TX Dawnell Tokarchuk F Mount Vernon WA James Keldsen M Walkerton IN Melissa Barnum F Port Orchard WA Nicole Sharp F Walla Walla WA Jennifer Sandenaw F Pekin IL Jeff Davenport M Indianapolis IN Kenneth Safford M Gig Harbor WA Ginny Selec F Plano TX Brandy Layton F Silverdale WA Becca Flora F Bellevue WA Jill Davis F Hot Springs AR Elizabeth Whitteberry F Colleyville TX Laura Spears F Poulsbo WA Suzette Roman F Downers Grove IL Lesley Jones F Garland TX Keli Davenport F Longview WA Lee Chu M Bremerton WA Nancy Coe M Everett WA Sarah Courtney F Corvallis OR Melissa Beard F Olympia WA Penny Palumbo F Dallas TX Kathryn White F Salt Lake City UT Cruz Pitre M Kennedale TX Daniel Katsin M Mill Valley CA Amy Gavin F Gig Harbor WA SuLee Allen F University Place WA Dana Oller F Justin TX Elizabeth Lobaugh F Lewisville TX Kim Miller F fort worth TX Matt Collins M Dickson City PA Jim Batson M Fort Worth TX Shannon Puphal F Northlake TX Robin Dunlap F Rowlett TX Nichole Mathis F Odessa TX Mark Parrotte M Arlington VA Lupe Barraza F Dallas TX Christy Paul F Arlington TX Melissa Huggins F West Chester PA Brian Simpson M Seattle WA Tara Simpson F Seattle WA Dan Folk M Folsom CA JOHN RONGE M LOS ANGELES CA rodney chang M fremont CA Kelsey Kilinski F St. Marks FL Todd McCrory M Maple Valley WA Rachel Runfola F Owasso OK Katrina Mukherjee F San Antonio TX Jamie Knight M Baker FL Tim Gray M Coral Springs FL Marlene Deem F Clarksville TN Lennie Groenewegen F Rotterdam Sharon Andrews F Augusta GA Liz Chavez F New Rochelle NY Andy Kraus M Madison WI Terrica Preast F Lenoir City TN Katie Wade F Gainesville FL Nicholas Norfolk M Little Rock AR Kenneth Massett M LaPlace LA Agnes Porell F East Hartford CT Dave Dodge M Duncan SC Leah Ruesink F Wauwatosa WI Amy Kreidler F St. Louis MO Paul Kreidler M St. Louis MO Suezette Minch F Vero Beach FL Carey Hutchins M Mount Gilead OH Cynthia Gibson F Temple TX Chris Humphries M Ooltewah TN Anthony Shapiro M Alpharetta GA Kirsten Reynolds F Temple TX Tanya Higby F Naperville IL Carrie Tarver F Boerne TX Suzanne Petro F Salado TX Gregory McIntyre M Clifton Park, NY NY Daniel Hsien M LAGUNA NIGUEL CA Danielle Whittaker F Daphne AL Doug MacKenzie M Ypsilanti MI Matthew Fitzgerald M Manassas Park VA Wally Capps M Farmers Branch TX Amanda Almanza F Sachse TX Jeffrey Green M Virginia Beach VA Stan Davis M Hixson TN Edward Vega M Raleigh NC Tom Alkire M Austin TX Carrie McNish F Yardley PA David Threm M Fort Wayne IN Deborah Gulley F Tulsa OK Greg Yates M Buford GA Benjamin Stillman M Atlanta GA Tracy Taylor F Gainesville FL rachel williams F Houston TX Louise Turner F Scottsdale AZ Bob Brantner M West River MD Amanda Carmon F Baton Rouge LA Charlotte Simmons F Atlanta GA Naoki Yamamoto M Yokohama, JAPAN Gary Schmidt M Waterloo IL Eric Hunziker M Cincinnati OH Keith Schlottman M Tucson AZ Jenine Wilson F Santa Rosa CA Bill Landers M Rome GA Juanita Woods F Ozark MO Scott Garrett M Canton MI Lori Schwartz F Palm Harbor FL Mike Schwartz M Palm Harbor FL Michelle Gibson F Nassau Jeremy Mann M Indianapolis IN Linda Williams F Nassau Syed Rizvi M Brooklyn NY John Atkinson M Caledonia MI Christy Davis F Tulsa OK Pat Mccracken M Tulsa OK Sue Cottrill F Lynn Haven FL Kai Ooi M Victoria, Australia Martha Newton F Austin TX Sandra Whisnant M Baton Rouge LA Karen Guerra F San Antonio TX James Butler M APO AE Anh Le Vynh F San Francisco CA Carra Summers F Lynn Haven FL Brad Garfinkel M New Cumberland PA Mark Casey M AUBURN WA Stephen Johnson M Sadorus IL Kane Baker M Racine WI Kathy Wisthoff F Lahaina HI Jay Wisthoff M Lahaina HI Carla Borst F Bates City MO Amy Pannell F Oklahoma City OK Hung Hoang M Houston TX Hideko Opperman F Redmond WA Mike Mote M Azle TX Jamie Summerton F Tulsa OK Thomas McNicholas M Checotah OK Cheryl Iseberg F Fircrest WA Chantal Levesque-Bristol F Springfield MO James H. Robinson M Hobart IN Phuong Anh Wilkerson F Murphy TX Andrew Aguirre M Tulsa OK Amy Wisthoff-Martin F Lahaina HI Michelle Black F Duluth GA Vanessa McGrogan F Evans GA Nurit Millman-Sandler F Aventura FL Traci Rodney F Grapevine TX Jeffrey Rees M Show Low AZ RD Martin M Phoenix AZ Bobby Montague M Surprise AZ Joshua Bryant M Layton UT Colin Hawkes M Bellevue WA monica huff F bogart GA Danielle Mastrangel-Brown F Phoenix AZ Julie Crusor F Atlanta GA Jonathan Betanoff M Miami FL Hazel Goh F Singapore Eric McMath M Marietta GA Monika Carlson M San Diego CA Terri Smith-Wright F Lafayette IN Lisa Romig F Austin TX Joey Schrichte M Suwanee GA Alexis Chen F San Carlos CA Al Emma M Exton PA Marc Mendoza M Cooper City FL Amanda Jobe F Cartersville GA Zac Babb M Round Rock TX Trish Wakeham F Fairfax VA Robert Antulov M Yonkers NY Terri Varnadoe F Ocala FL Celestina Yeager F Elkins WV Kris Mahurin M Fort Benning GA Darlene Baltimore F College Park GA Loc Pham M Ottawa Kay Allen F Seattle WA Janice Tham-Cheng F Tulsa OK Randall Schramm M Barksdale AFB LA steve gunnels M norman OK Kathleen Gorman F Peoria AZ Todd Seay M Lyman SC Adam Horton M Nixa MO Aaron Avery M Manhattan KS Delia Park F Huntington Beach CA Dale Shotkoski M Fremont NE Elaine Hillis F Garland TX Diane Durden F Twentynine Palms CA Joy Nagal F Chula Vista CA Robert Lott M League City TX Shannon Barron F Lewisville TX Kamal Jabbour M Pompey NY Tom Swingen M Fond du Lac WI Steve Summers M Auburn WA Ralph Blanchard M East Granby CT teresa chandler F birmingham AL Rick Jarvis M Cookeville TN Kitzzy Aviles F Orlando FL Bijou Chacko M Friendswood TX Tony Campbell M Smiths Station AL Alex Morrow M Birmingham AL Deb Potash F Jacksonville FL Todd Breneiser M Grand Blanc MI Nathan Bliss M killeen TX Daniel Esparza M Doral FL Dave Hodson M Palo Alto CA John Gignac M Tinker AFB OK Venkatraman G S M Bangalore Lisa Page F Kennewick WA Amy Lynes F Tacoma WA Elaine Ver Halen F Germantown TN Pete DeCarolis M Philadelphia PA Mark Gershman M Scottsdale AZ Keith Reyes M Gold Canyon AZ Larry Taylor M Rathdrum ID Matt Waldbusser M Cedar Park TX Gina Snow M San Antonio TX Michael Glueck M Sugar Land TX Reynaldo Ramos M Odenville AL Brian Mount M Eastaboga AL Clint Bissett M Fort Worth TX JoAnna Villalon F Corpus Christi TX Glenn Rustay M Vero Beach FL HELEN MCKENZIE F FORT LAUD FL Ulf Kirchdorfer M Albany GA Amanda Blocker F Maud TX Denise Kaufman F Fort Lauderdale FL Maria Lomba F New Braunfels TX Robert Nagle M Paradise Valley AZ Don Morgan M Conway AR Dan Kuch M Lake Havasu City AZ Lois Green F East Greenbush NY Arlette Lackey F Cherryville NC Brad Candia M San Antonio TX Michael Gillespie M Winter Springs FL Donna Braswell F Boise ID Tammy Watkins F Mesa AZ Shane Houshmand M Plano TX Jim Tello M Chula Vista CA Beth Goodwin F Owasso OK Chris Smith M edmond OK Joe Nelson M Fayetteville AR Jim Morrical M Goshen IN Rich Yap M Plano TX Bethany Stephens F Dallas TX Michael Stephens M Dallas TX Hilary Grant F Waco TX Teresa Kirkwood F Homewood AL Mark Hall M Johns Creek GA Christopher Quigley M Allen TX Katsy Spratley F Queen Creek AZ jean-michel fouard M marysville WA Allyson Hatfield F Richmond VA Shelley Hills F Tulsa OK William Gaugler M Dallas TX Bryan Meadows M Bessemer AL Paul Maisel M Evergreen CO Susan Siragusa F Rochester Hills MI Shaun Schottmiller M Midland TX Matt Fisher M Goshen IN David Bayley M MK2 2JZ Mike Chewar M Ponte Vedra Beach FL Sheri Giese F Wilton IA drew barton M tulsa OK Jeannette Brown F Fort Worth TX Ventura Gallegos M Bruceville TX Abdul Karim Fakir Ali M Kuala Lumpur Anders Forselius M Ljusdal Michael Canle M Tomball TX Karen Khodadadi F Auburn AL Josh Thomas M Edmond OK OK Steve Alexander M Vicksburg MS Chris Redford M Shreveport LA Abbi Florence F Louisville KY Russ Horn M Lubbock TX Heather Hankins F Jonesboro AR Kok Woh Chong M Shah Alam Walter Zahler M Hickory NC Orion Marx M Sarasota FL Bethany Schramm F Mission Viejo CA Yvette Dunn F Wharton TX Danielle Macik F Atlanta GA Marty Koster M Jonesboro AR Bennjamin Griffin M Pittsfield MA Katie Hines F Lexington SC John Bader M Austin TX Jennifer Hatcher F Portsmouth OH Roger Teel M Pace FL Susan Almquist F Gilbert AZ Jonathan Teter M Annapolis MD Mitch Monroe M Lubbock TX Bob Dedeke M Tulsa OK Peter Langlois M Pascagoula MS Jordan Lynch M Fort Worth TX Margaret Tollner F Lakewood CA Julie Bonner F Cypress TX Monica Abbott F Plano TX Argenta Lucas F Troy MI JoAnne Barnes F Fairview TX Johanna Michel F Nashville TN John Dever M Annandale VA Heather Sorenson F Tyler TX Lori Dather F Conway AR Charles Crabtree M Coral Springs FL Lynda Trujillo F Jacksonville FL Amy Amadi F Missouri City TX Donald Rosenleaf M Butte MT Michele Parnell F Columbia SC Larry Cyz M LaGrange Highlands IL Schanon Turner F Sulphur LA Tiffany Menzel F DeRidder LA Andrea Hillman F Marietta GA Kathleen McElhannon F Ridgeville SC Mark Peterson M cypress TX Christopher Boundy M East Northport NY Steve Felson M The Woodlands TX Troy Mitchell M Pensacola FL Jackie Frederick F Yelm WA Christy Alfertig F Dallas TX Jeffrey Nelson M Bismarck ND Rose Laurence F Tampa FL Peter Doyle M Tampa FL Sandy Singleton M St. Pete FL Kevin Steinberg M WEST VANCOUVER John Izzo M Salisbury VT Harve Truskett M Houston TX Christine Rockey F Oxford MS jeff chaney M Jacksonville FL Sheila LeBlanc F Duson LA Jennie Curran F Tulsa OK Lisa Masson F Los Angeles CA Dan Rasay M Portland OR Cheryl Calton F Lodi CA Carla Pessoa Roy F Toronto Omer Womack M Deer Park TX Ron Ylagan M Chesapeake VA Ann Steiner F Yucaipa CA Victoria Webster F Houston TX Cody Dangel M West Valley City UT Jaehee Kim F Stanford CA Patrick O'Diam M Meridian MS Seth Reynolds M Pottsboro TX Gina Pennisi F Apex NC robert aberle M portland OR Sandra Weston F Kansas City MO Ashleigh Jimmilyn Rosson F Pearland TX Jenny Majamaki F Valencia CA Nicole Creech F Charlotte NC kelley flynn F raleigh NC john flynn M raleigh NC Omar Evans M Woodbridge VA Melissa Kullander F Scottsdale AZ Scot Barco M Nags Head NC Cindy Yang F New York NY Stephen Warren M Columbus GA Jonathan McCoy M Saltillo MS Leigh Anne Guveiyian F Danville CA Diana Daves F Bakersfield CA Jeff Burgess M Simi valley CA Eddy Horn M Frederick MD Caitlyn Kogel F Hollywood MD Amanda Morken F Alexandria VA Jason Noble M Sugar Hill GA Derek Warren M Tijeras NM Jennifer Warren F Tijeras NM Janet Aguilar F Stevenson Ranch CA Aaron Kingsbury M Largo FL James Towey M Glen Allen VA Dan Schultz M Newtown Square PA Sheika Brown F Frederick MD Craig Davidson M New York NY Amador Rodriguez, Jr. M Socorro TX William Warthon M Frisco TX Bryan Miller M Saltillo MS Jamie Winter M Oviedo FL Will Flint M Fort Bragg NC brandy windham F hattiesburg MS Sara Whaley F Sapulpa OK John Lassig M Spring TX Brandee Taylor F Langley wendy blauman F new york NY SHANTELLE LEONARD F NEW YORK NY Jesse Thurman M Columbus GA Brenda Griffiths F apopka FL Michael Lepley M Cookeville TN David Welborn M Conway SC Bob Reid M The Woodlands TX NOR AINI ABU KASIM F KUALA LUMPUR John Rodgers M Foothill Ranch CA Marc Sing M Vernon Hills IL Matthew McBee M Midwest City OK Darlene Spry M Midwest City OK Deneen Waddell F New Berlin WI Mary Baez F Riverside CA Todd Cirelli M Mechanicsburg PA Cathy Minshall F Half Moon Bay CA Polli Schmutz F Washington UT Jennifer Westenhaver F Woodward OK Karen Riddle F Dean TX Leah Pelfrey F Rochester MI Mary Parker F Tulsa OK Rita Sanders F Tulsa OK Lori Morgan F Gilbert AZ Karen Turcott F Skiatook OK Tim Morgan M Gilbert AZ Craig Foster M Kirkland WA Kenny Berkemeyer M North Little Rock AR Laura Zeffer F Bellevue WA Mike Macey M Duncan Meliss Danehey F Raleigh NC Vaness Bailey F South Salem NY Richard Chambers M Fowler OH Anthony Reed M Dallas TX Kathy Morrisson F Kent WA Matt Morrisson M Kent WA Taylor Artel F Jacksonville FL Soo-Hui Um M Puyallup WA Travis Green M Fairview TX MARIA H FROSTH F MIRAMAR FL JAMES RIZO M MIRAMAR FL Amelia Elbert F Mounds OK Jeff Elbert M Mounds OK Tammy Perez F San Jose CA Jonathan French M Katy TX Debbie Hayes F Jenks OK Manuel Beltran M Temecula CA Ed Breault M Moon Township PA Pete Aronson M Colorado Springs CO Tamara James F Henderson KY Natalie Ehrlich F Jenks OK Kathy Moore F Jenks OK Troy Moore M Jenks OK William Kenneweg M Port Townsend WA Christi Jones F Jacksonville AR Carrie Fox F Cabot AR Jessica Tsotsoros F Broken Arrow OK Alyshia Davies Drake F Ione CA A.J Hacker M Noblesville IN Amy Meyer F columbus GA Alan LaFoe M Purcell OK Heather Foley F Houston TX John Reidelbach M St. John IN JACK CURTIS M ANACORTES WA Maria Dahlgren F Evansville IN Jacquelyn Ashley F Puyallup WA Hannah Turnbough F Conway AR Rhonda Larson F Waipahu HI Frank Bireley M Plano TX Ken Gordon M Seattle WA Miyuki Hasegawa F Seattle WA Jerry Warden M Woodbridge VA Bill Taylor M Birmingham AL Drew George M The Woodlands TX Anders Martinson M Woodland WA Henrita van Wyngaarden F The Woodlands TX Kari Brown F COLUMBUS OH sheila johnson F Lakewood WA Sharon Harrow F Seneca SC Walter Martinez M Chicago IL Jonathan Vizena M Madison WI Jason Burcham M Hillsville VA Janice Rumph F Mattawan MI Annie Hernandez F Grandview WA John Basham M Terre Haute IN Troy Rambo M Grandview Heights OH Steven Payette M Woodacre CA Michael MacIntyre M Cornelius NC Joe Carte M Beaufort SC Stormy Phillips M Tulsa OK joe feaser M richmond VA Austin Sedicum M Quakertown PA Adam Mull M Matthews NC Amanda Remus F Marietta GA Lisa Schneiders F Fallston MD suzanne marchesano F Greenland NH Stephen Kallus M Houston TX Jaynee Ruiz F Daly City CA Emmanuel Odebunmi M STATEN ISLAND NY Cary Aurand F Bloomfield Hills MI victoria krencius F milan IL Heidi Scherzer F Roseville MI Jay Schwarzmann M Germantown TN Stephanie Andre F Bixby OK Gary McKinney M Tulsa OK Robert Babcock M Tulsa OK Regina Goodwin F Tulsa OK John Hord M Washington DC Jackie Stammen F Brentwood TN Jeff Taylor M Springdale AR Jared Friemel M Benton AR Christine Johnson F Normal IL Jennifer McCoy F Oklahoma City OK James Hooko M Tulsa OK Katherine Murphy F Saint Helens OR ann kierl F Oklahoma City OK Sarah Hood F Fayetteville AR Crystal Squires F St. Louis MO Brian VanHorn M Damainsville IL Priscilla Reese F arlington,tx.76017 TX Aaron Woodhead M Tulsa OK Jason Rogers M Portland OR Lolita Lockett F Jacksonville FL C. Lake F Houston TX Veronica Voakes F Chesterfield MI Craig Avery M Memphis TN Rose Logan-Surgeon F Portland OR Ralph Breckenridge M Oklahoma City OK Belinda Jared F Conway AR Amber Roberts F Claremore OK Patricia Strock F Sunnyvale CA Teresa Rodriguez F Oklahoma City OK Mark Vetter M Fayetteville AR Don Keller M Indianapolis IN Bob Huber M Sugar Hill GA Sara Kent F Bristow OK Angie Rhude F Morganfield KY Kathy Fleig F Tulsa OK Nectarios Platsis M Hartford CT Jeff Wehling M Springfield MO Michael Garza M Marion IL Scott Fontana M O'Fallon MO Christine Bodner F Springfield OR Annie Combs F St. Peters MO Laurence Jared M Conway AR James Williams M Staunton VA JORGE GARCIA M GLEN CARBON IL Marvin Clark M Indianapolis IN Kristin Ware F Tulsa OK Frank Jones M O'Fallon IL Mike Stepanek M Ellicott City MD Tim Lamb M Moore OK cathleen rice F haleiwa HI Russell Bennett M Tulsa OK Kirby Still M Monett MO Tim Scheffers M Poratge MI Douglas Dahlberg M Hampstead NC Mike Davis M Lakewood WA Kirk Taylor M Morton Grove IL VRNDA BAILEY F VASS NC MURAT BEYAZIT M NEW YORK NY Amanda Coussoule F Fayetteville AR Joan Christie M Lombard IL Jina Benson F Gig Harbor WA Christina D'Amico F Chesapeake VA Barbara Alston F Lake mary FL Ethan Matyas M Oak Park IL Patrick Mitchell M Gig Harbor WA Stacy Bay F Broken Arrow OK Michael Roberts M Washington DC Jack Lee M Scarborough Kevin Dawson M Vansant VA Tyler Wolf M Overland Park KS Sara Feken F Tulsa OK Kelly Butler F Pittsboro NC Maria José Morante F Bothell WA Margaret Seymour F Virginia Beach VA Tristan Higgason F Ventura CA Brandi Swortz F Lakewood WA Brenda Knight F Henderson KY Fiona Van Alstyne F Seattle WA Cira Deissl-Gibbs F San Diego CA Matthew Conigliaro M St Petersburg FL Karen Nolting F Kent WA Ben Moore M Batavia IL Lisa Oswald-Coates F Langley Matt Snyder M Las Vegas NV Jeff Maher M Overland Park KS Kim Dominick F Baton Rouge LA Rolando Rivera M Plano IL Robert Burke M Monterey CA Scott Milks M Lafayette IN Laura Hudson F Evansville IN Becky Henning F Kansas City MO Lee Adamcik F Hebron KY Chase Merriman M Hilliard OH Deidre Emerson F Spokane Valley WA David Stewart M Middleville MI Robert Ted Barron M Newburgh IN Ed Ferrell M Grayson GA Claire Greenberg F Houston TX Miki Fields F Newburgh IN Kevin Lynes M Yukon OK Guy Rozas M League City TX Mat Luse M Midwest City OK Susan Collins F Tulsa OK Scott Heintzelman M Carlisle PA Juliene Bell-Smith F Mount Vernon NY Peter Ralph Lantin M Forest Hills NY Cathy Downes F Evansville IN Angie Hicks F Waxhaw NC Laura Nanda F Shreveport LA Derek Rogers M Toronto Sandy Henke F Lake in the Hills IL Andrew Zapanta M Charlottesville VA Dayna Neece F Calera AL Bridget OCallaghan-Hay F Fountain Valley CA Katie Skoog F Davis CA Howard Cragg M Bethpage NY Tracy Eaves F Niles MI Linda-Marie O'Connor F Quincy MA Barbara Hemstreet F Austin TX Lou Manza M Jonestown PA Michael Shaffer M Coupeville WA Lori Arceo F Reston VA Kevin Hoffman M Fargo ND Martha Spiva F Boise ID Monica Hardin F Geneva IL Alice Xiao F Alhambra CA Maureen MacCarthy F Seattle WA Craig Anderson M Visalia CA Michael Hoyt M Mccordsville IN Estelle Atney F Playa del Rey CA Travis Leach M Perry OH Michael Chrisman M Meridian ID Kimberly Markey F Kensington CT James Hanson M Itasca IL David Delagarza M Denver CO Katherine Stickney F Indianapolis IN Jim Allen M Prince George jeff Vince M east st paul, MB, Canada MARY GONZALES F Northridge CA Jeff McGlynn M Lombard IL Patrick Kubovsky M Mechanicsburg PA Jennifer Nuttall F Cottonwood Heights UT Phillip Budowanec M Hinckley OH Mark Zaremba M Killen AL Paula Roberson F Heflin AL Caolan MacMahon F Boulder CO Angie Kovacs F Medina OH Amy Shewmaker F Springfield MO Brian Jones M Prospect KY Debra Templin F Hermosa Beach CA Jerod Tufte M Bismarck ND Laura Carter F Sandy UT Cora Artz F Puyallup WA Jim Lilley M Plano TX Jamie Attardo F Lewiston ME Melinda Scharf F Olympia WA Sara Luckett F Louisville KY Tim Cooley M Warrensburg MO Deann Leoni F Edmonds WA Dexter Emoto M Loma Linda CA Bonnie Ritchotte F Littleton NH NANCY HEAPE F SPRINGFIELD MO sophia consola F tacoma WA Alexander Covington M Philadelphia PA Margot Ochoa F Long Beach CA Jim Aniol M De Pere WI michael sortito M north haven CT natalie baldo F calgary Daniel Tou M West Hills CA Lana Mades F Madison WI Tammy Kronebusch F Winona MN Alissa Caton M Delmar NY Donna Beaulieu F Poland Spring ME Suzanne Gruendling F Shelburne VT Ty Thurlow M Lee ME Teresa Dyreng F Murray UT Jeffrey Yamada M Yakima WA Brian Hrybyk M Sturbridge MA Aaron Knopf M Redmond WA John Stamler M Iowa City IA Reinhard Boland M Vancouver Lan VoBa F Sammamish WA Diane Harty F North Walpole NH Georgette Rodarte F Alhambra CA Ellen Royen F Henderson KY John White M Windcrest TX Abby Dineen F Philadelphia PA Brian Ringle M Lewiston ID Andrea Herrmann F Warwick RI Dan Brennan M St. Peters MO Kym Hunter F Spokane WA Kate Little F Saint Anthony ID Lori Bufka F Lansing MI Bob Kalinsky M Naperville IL Ryan Heidenfeld M Grand Rapids MI david malin M ASHEBORO NC Ronda Konen F Marysville WA Nick Paterno M Puyallup WA Melissa Strautins F Salt Lake City UT Mark Barringer M Sheridan WY Joseph Montgomery M Beech Bluff TN Julie Montgomery M Beech Bluff TN Jason Weekes M Fife WA Ruth Walsh F Winona MN Robin Loen F Kenmore WA David Plyler M Bakersfield CA Cathy Fowler F Everett WA Bobbi Galindo F Las Vegas NV John West M Parker CO Clark Parry M Holiday FL Mark Agulnik M Chicago IL Steve Reincke M Las Vegas NV Vicki Bentley-Condit F Grinnell IA Doug Colglazier M Valparaiso NE Allison Robbins F Springfield MO Charles Quinsay M Warrensburg MO Emile Davis M San Diego CA Erik Butler M Port Orchard WA Sharon Butler F Port Orchard WA Mihai Pantis M Cluj-Napoca Robert Zmirich M Mount Laurel NJ Mickey Ask M colton CA bill michael M Bainbridge Island WA Clinton Kaku M Auburn WA Audrey Petterson F Skamokawa WA Lori Litynski F Golden Valley MN Jill Grant F Ashland VA Karen Mayes F St. Charles MO Howard Mayes M St. Charles MO Sally Bowerman F Blue Springs MO Mario Cordova M San Diego CA Patricia Johnson F Petersburg WV Heather Osborn F Los Angeles CA LOGAN SAMSON M LOUISVILLE KY Martin McMahon M Morrisville PA Kay Van Danacker F Longmont CO Scott J M Tacoma WA Christine Moore F De Pere WI Michael Akagi M DRAPER UT Christine Wendler F Alexandria VA Kendra Schoffstall F Haubstadt IN Michelle Lenahan F Evansville IN michel maokhampio M los angeles CA Allison Levy F Mendham NJ Phil Weinzapfel M Evansville IN Suzanne Spiceland F Jacksonville AL Patrick Durkin M Waupaca WI Lindsey Reedy F Cincinnati OH Nicholas Milkovich M Tacoma WA Lindsey Simpson F Lehi UT Carol Krizman F Evanston IL Herb Keefer M Hueytown AL Kathy Nicholaichuk F Toronto Brent Degenhardt M Edgewood KY Mary Buroker F Kennewick WA Ron Castleton M Sandy UT Barbara Fitzgerald F Sherman Oaks CA Marc Bergman M Round Rock TX Davey Green M Launceston Kathy Davidson F Grayson GA Dede Owens F Cypress CA Sharon Bowers F Spokane WA Fred Reed M Brea CA Irene Gonzales F Spokane WA Rose Deal F Fort Smith AR Brigitt Hartin F Austin TX Dustin Washam M Farmington MO Georgia Bunko F Puyallup WA Teresa Conley F Aurora CO Arturo Moreno M Chicago IL bill wells M new albany IN Ryan Peterson M Ames IA Lori Nolte F Yuma AZ Molly Lesley F Spokane WA kari taylor F Colorado springs CO KRISTINA NEWCOMB F LAKE TAPPS WA Dan Graham M Kenmore WA Steven Riley M Seabeck WA Brianna Oke F Portland OR Andrew Sheets M Wenatchee WA Kelli Scott F Camas WA Angie Huggins F Battle Ground WA James Belcher M Portland OR Mark Weber M Simpsonville SC Janet Vogelzang F Seattle WA Lynne Caulkins F Brentwood TN Halbert Walston M Radcliff KY Jay Brower M Graham WA Nevada Pokorney F Granger IN Mike Evans M Lino Lakes MN Maria Millsap F Seattle WA Diana Jones F Maple Ridge Courtney Fay F Littleton CO Carolyn Hicks F Black Hawk CO Jorge Ruiz, Sr. Series/Newsreel title TRUE LIVES Episode/Item title My Great Grandmother Was A Boxer Production company Graph Films
Radio Telefrk Zaremba M Killen AL Paula Roberson F Heflin AL Caolan MacMahon F Boulder CO Angie Kovacs F Medina OH Amy Shewmaker F Springfield MO Brian Jones M Prospect KY Debra Templin F Hermosa Beach CA Jerod Tufte M Bismarck ND Laura Carter F Sandy UT Cora Artz F Puyallup WA Jim Lilley M Plano TX Jamie Attardo F Lewiston ME Melinda Scharf F Olympia WA Sara Luckett F Louisville KY Tim Cooley M Warrensburg MO Deann Leoni F Edmonds WA Dexter Emoto M Loma Linda CA Bonnie Ritchotte F Littleton NH NANCY HEAPE F SPRINGFIELD MO sophia consola F tacoma WA Alexander Covington M Philadelphia PA Margot Ochoa F Long Beach CA Jim Aniol M De Pere WI michael sortito M north haven CT natalie baldo F calgary Daniel Tou M West Hills CA Lana Mades F Madison WI Tammy Kronebusch F Winona MN Alissa Caton M Delmar NY Donna Beaulieu F Poland Spring ME Suzanne Gruendling F Shelburne VT Ty Thurlow M Lee ME Teresa Dyreng F Murray UT Jeffrey Yamada M Yakima WA Brian Hrybyk M Sturbridge MA Aaron Knopf M Redmond WA John Stamler M Iowa City IA Reinhard Boland M Vancouver Lan VoBa F Sammamish WA Diane Harty F North Walpole NH Georgette Rodarte F Alhambra CA Ellen Royen F Henderson KY John White M Windcrest TX Abby Dineen F Philadelphia PA Brian Ringle M Lewiston ID Andrea Herrmann F Warwick RI Dan Brennan M St. Peters MO Kym Hunter F Spokane WA Kate Little F Saint Anthony ID Lori Bufka F Lansing MI Bob Kalinsky M Naperville IL Ryan Heidenfeld M Grand Rapids MI david malin M ASHEBORO NC Ronda Konen F Marysville WA Nick Paterno M Puyallup WA Melissa Strautins F Salt Lake City UT Mark Barringer M Sheridan WY Joseph Montgomery M Beech Bluff TN Julie Montgomery M Beech Bluff TN Jason Weekes M Fife WA Ruth Walsh F Winona MN Robin Loen F Kenmore WA David Plyler M Bakersfield CA Cathy Fowler F Everett WA Bobbi Galindo F Las Vegas NV John West M Parker CO Clark Parry M Holiday FL Mark Agulnik M Chicago IL Steve Reincke M Las Vegas NV Vicki Bentley-Condit F Grinnell IA Doug Colglazier M Valparaiso NE Allison Robbins F Springfield MO Charles Quinsay M Warrensburg MO Emile Davis M San Diego CA Erik Butler M Port Orchard WA Sharon Butler F Port Orchard WA Mihai Pantis M Cluj-Napoca Robert Zmirich M Mount Laurel NJ Mickey Ask M colton CA bill michael M Bainbridge Island WA Clinton Kaku M Auburn WA Audrey Petterson F Skamokawa WA Lori Litynski F Golden Valley MN Jill Grant F Ashland VA Karen Mayes F St. Charles MO Howard Mayes M St. Charles MO Sally Bowerman F Blue Springs MO Mario Cordova M San Diego CA Patricia Johnson F Petersburg WV Heather Osborn F Los Angeles CA LOGAN SAMSON M LOUISVILLE KY Martin McMahon M Morrisville PA Kay Van Danacker F Longmont CO Scott J M Tacoma WA Christine Moore F De Pere WI Michael Akagi M DRAPER UT Christine Wendler F Alexandria VA Kendra Schoffstall F Haubstadt IN Michelle Lenahan F Evansville IN michel maokhampio M los angeles CA Allison Levy F Mendham NJ Phil Weinzapfel M Evansville IN Suzanne Spiceland F Jacksonville AL Patrick Durkin M Waupaca WI Lindsey Reedy F Cincinnati OH Nicholas Milkovich M Tacoma WA Lindsey Simpson F Lehi UT Carol Krizman F Evanston IL Herb Keefer M Hueytown AL Kathy Nicholaichuk F Toronto Brent Degenhardt M Edgewood KY Mary Buroker F Kennewick WA Ron Castleton M Sandy UT Barbara Fitzgerald F Sherman Oaks CA Marc Bergman M Round Rock TX Davey Green M Launceston Kathy Davidson F Grayson GA Dede Owens F Cypress CA Sharon Bowers F Spokane WA Fred Reed M Brea CA Irene Gonzales F Spokane WA Rose Deal F Fort Smith AR Brigitt Hartin F Austin TX Dustin Washam M Farmington MO Georgia Bunko F Puyallup WA Teresa Conley F Aurora CO Arturo Moreno M Chicago IL bill wells M new albany IN Ryan Peterson M Ames IA Lori Nolte F Yuma AZ Molly Lesley F Spokane WA kari taxMxMOMB F LAKE TAPPS WA Dan Graham M Kenmore WA Steven Riley M Seabeck WA Brianna Oke F Portland OR Andrew Sheets M Wenatchee WA Kelli Scott F Camas WA Angie Huggins F Battle Ground WA James Belcher M Portland OR Mark Weber M Simpsonville SC Janet Vogelzang F Seattle WA Lynne Caulkins F Brentwood TN Halbert Walston M Radcliff KY Jay Brower M Graham WA Nevada Pokorney F Granger IN Mike Evans M Lino Lakes MN Maria Millsap F Seattle WA Diana Jones F Maple Ridge Courtney Fay F Littleton CO Carolyn Hicks F Black Hawk CO Jorge Ruiz, Sr. Series/Newsreel title TRUE LIVES Episode/Item title My Great Grandmother Was A Boxer Production company Graph Films
Radio Telef FROSTH F MIRAMAR FL JAMES RIZO M MIRAMAR FL Amelia Elbert F Mounds OK Jeff Elbert M Mounds OK Tammy Perez F San Jose CA Jonathan French M Katy TX Debbie Hayes F Jenks OK Manuel Beltran M Temecula CA Ed Breault M Moon Township PA Pete Aronson M Colorado Springs CO Tamara James F Henderson KY Natalie Ehrlich F Jenks OK Kathy Moore F Jenks OK Troy Moore M Jenks OK William Kenneweg M Port Townsend WA Christi Jones F Jacksonville AR Carrie Fox F Cabot AR Jessica Tsotsoros F Broken Arrow OK Alyshia Davies Drake F Ione CA A.J Hacker M Noblesville IN Amy Meyer F columbus GA Alan LaFoe M Purcell OK Heather Foley F Houston TX John Reidelbach M St. John IN JACK CURTIS M ANACORTES WA Maria Dahlgren F Evansville IN Jacquelyn Ashley F Puyallup WA Hannah Turnbough F Conway AR Rhonda Larson F Waipahu HI Frank Bireley M Plano TX Ken Gordon M Seattle WA Miyuki Hasegawa F Seattle WA Jerry Warden M Woodbridge VA Bill Taylor M Birmingham AL Drew George M The Woodlands TX Anders Martinson M Woodland WA Henrita van Wyngaarden F The Woodlands TX Kari Brown F COLUMBUS OH sheila johnson F Lakewood WA Sharon Harrow F Seneca SC Walter Martinez M Chicago IL Jonathan Vizena M Madison WI Jason Burcham M Hillsville VA Janice Rumph F Mattawan MI Annie Hernandez F Grandview WA John Basham M Terre Haute IN Troy Rambo M Grandview Heights OH Steven Payette M Woodacre CA Michael MacIntyre M Cornelius NC Joe Carte M Beaufort SC Stormy Phillips M Tulsa OK joe feaser M richmond VA Austin Sedicum M Quakertown PA Adam Mull M Matthews NC Amanda Remus F Marietta GA Lisa Schneiders F Fallston MD suzanne marchesano F Greenland NH Stephen Kallus M Houston TX Jaynee Ruiz F Daly City CA Emmanuel Odebunmi M STATEN ISLAND NY Cary Aurand F Bloomfield Hills MI victoria krencius F milan IL Heidi Scherzer F Roseville MI Jay Schwarzmann M Germantown TN Stephanie Andre F Bixby OK Gary McKinney M Tulsa OK Robert Babcock M Tulsa OK Regina Goodwin F Tulsa OK John Hord M Washington DC Jackie Stammen F Brentwood TN Jeff Taylor M Springdale AR Jared Friemel M Benton AR Christine Johnson F Normal IL Jennifer McCoy F Oklahoma City OK James Hooko M Tulsa OK Katherine Murphy F Saint Helens OR ann kierl F Oklahoma City OK Sarah Hood F Fayetteville AR Crystal Squires F St. Louis MO Brian VanHorn M Damainsville IL Priscilla Reese F arlington,tx.76017 TX Aaron Woodhead M Tulsa OK Jason Rogers M Portland OR Lolita Lockett F Jacksonville FL C. Lake F Houston TX Veronica Voakes F Chesterfield MI Craig Avery M Memphis TN Rose Logan-Surgeon F Portland OR Ralph Breckenridge M Oklahoma City OK Belinda Jared F Conway AR Amber Roberts F Claremore OK Patricia Strock F Sunnyvale CA Teresa Rodriguez F Oklahoma City OK Mark Vetter M Fayetteville AR Don Keller M Indianapolis IN Bob Huber M Sugar Hill GA Sara Kent F Bristow OK Angie Rhude F Morganfield KY Kathy Fleig F Tulsa OK Nectarios Platsis M Hartford CT Jeff Wehling M Springfield MO Michael Garza M Marion IL Scott Fontana M O'Fallon MO Christine Bodner F Springfield OR Annie Combs F St. Peters MO Laurence Jared M Conway AR James Williams M Staunton VA JORGE GARCIA M GLEN CARBON IL Marvin Clark M Indianapolis IN Kristin Ware F Tulsa OK Frank Jones M O'Fallon IL Mike Stepanek M Ellicott City MD Tim Lamb M Moore OK cathleen rice F haleiwa HI Russell Bennett M Tulsa OK Kirby Still M Monett MO Tim Scheffers M Poratge MI Douglas Dahlberg M Hampstead NC Mike Davis M Lakewood WA Kirk Taylor M Morton Grove IL VRNDA BAILEY F VASS NC MURAT BEYAZIT M NEW YORK NY Amanda Coussoule F Fayetteville AR Joan Christie M Lombard IL Jina Benson F Gig Harbor WA Christina D'Amico F Chesapeake VA Barbara Alston F Lake mary FL Ethan Matyas M Oak Park IL Patrick Mitchell M Gig Harbor WA Stacy Bay F Broken Arrow OK Michael Roberts M Washington DC Jack Lee M Scarborough Kevin Dawson M Vansant VA Tyler Wolf M Overland PaI tiffany agus co melbourne Re: GBlist: Dangers of CCA Pressure Treated Woodglobal directoryA Language For GardenersCity Listings - Environment (January 25 - January 31, 1996)The Best HydroponicsThe Seattle Times: Special ReportsBest of the HumusphereBiorealism: READING NATURE'S BLUEPRINTSCross Timbers Recommended ReadingScientific American: Technology and Business: GETTING THE DIRT ON DIRT: 8/97Scientific American: Technology and Business: FARMING WITH LINT: 8/97Table Of ContentsDragonfly Entomology BibliographyDancing Rabbit: An Ecovillage CommunityFarming in Los AngelesLife in the Soil video update/Nature FarmingNew BookMichael's Recommended Reading ListMichael's Recommended Reading ListFAQ Table of Contents

Re: GBlist: Dangers of CCA Pressure Treated Woodglobal directoryA Language For GardenersCity Listings - Environment (January 25 - January 31, 1996)The Best HydroponicsThe Seattle Times: Special ReportsBest of the HumusphereBiorealism: READING NATURE'S BLUEPRINTSCross Timbers Recommended ReadingScientific American: Technology and Business: GETTING THE DIRT ON DIRT: 8/97Scientific American: Technology and Business: FARMING WITH LINT: 8/97Table Of ContentsDra uffewxiv. tiffany \u0026 co canadagonfly Entomology BibliographyDancing Rabbit: An Ecovillage CommunityFarming in Los AngelesLife in the Soil video update/Nature FarmingNew BookMichael's Recommended Reading ListMichael's Recommended Reading ListFAQ Table of Contents tiffany agus co melbourne


AGRONOMY

GETTING THE DIRT ON DIRT

It may look like just a speck of dirt to the naked eye, but under an electron microscope a crumb of prairie soil is really a carefully constructed "apartment building," home to the small critters that recycle decaying organic matter into usable nutrients. About a millimeter across, a soil crumb--or macroaggregate--is riddled with water- and air-filled pores that shelter such organisms as bacteria, fungi and nematodes. As these organisms dine on dead roots, fertilizer and even one another, they release the nitrogen compounds that feed growing plants.

U.S. Department of Agriculture soil scientist Cynthia Cambardella is passionate about macroaggregates. She and her colleagues at the National Soil Tilth Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, study soil structure and its effect on nutrient cycling in the hope of developing more efficient and environmentally friendly farming techniques. Soils with abundant macroaggregates do a better job of supporting plant life and lose fewer nutrients to leaching; therefore, much of Cambardella's work focuses on the formation and degradation of these rich crumbs in agricultural lands.

Cambardella has her graduate student Jeff Gale of Iowa State University use radioactive carbon 14, for example, to observe the aggregation process in soil as the debris from harvested oat plants decomposes. Gale sows his oats in large pots kept in a walk-in growth chamber. As the plants grow to a height of a meter, he periodically doses them with radioactivity by combining carbon 14-tagged sodium bicarbonate with a dilute acid inside the growth chamber. When the acid hits the radioactive baking soda, the mixture foams, liberating "hot" carbon dioxide that is fixed by the growing plants and incorporated into their tissues.

After the plants are harvested, Gale and Cambardella can trace the radioactive organic materials from the remaining roots and straw as they decompose and become incorporated into the soil structure. They are finding that the presence of relatively fresh plant matter in the soil helps to stabilize its structure--the number of macroaggregates peaks about 180 days after the harvest, and then the aggregates start to break down, potentially compromising soil quality.

Studying aggregate formation, Gale says, will help farmers learn to maintain good soil structure in the field. Cambardella believes that understanding soil structure is vital to developing agricultural practices that do not cause topsoil erosion or the contamination of aquifers and surface waters with fertilizer runoff. "We need to learn more about what's really going on in the soil," Cambardella says. "We can't black-box it anymore."

--Rebecca Zacks


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